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  • BIOLOGY  (17)
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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; THERAPY ; DIAGNOSIS ; INFORMATION ; NETWORK ; TOOL ; DISEASE ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; BIOLOGY ; SEQUENCE ; FORM ; IDENTIFICATION ; HEALTH ; DATABASE ; PRODUCT ; bioinformatics ; LOCALIZATION ; WEB ; HUMAN GENES ; FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS ; PROTEOMICS ; PRODUCTS ; databases ; ANNOTATION ; RESOURCE ; PROTEIN-ANALYSIS ; FULL-LENGTH HUMAN ; HUMAN CDNAS
    Abstract: As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15489336
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; INVASION ; CELL ; Germany ; KINASE ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; TYROSINE KINASE ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; validation ; BIOLOGY ; TARGET ; REQUIRES ; PCR ; SIGNALING PATHWAY ; SIGNALING PATHWAYS ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; systems biology ; TARGETS ; OVEREXPRESSION ; real-time PCR ; protein expression ; CROSS-TALK ; CYTOTOXICITY ; signaling ; SINGLE ; ARRAY ; analysis ; EVENTS ; technique ; USA ; quantitative ; SIGNALING NETWORK ; protein arrays ; combinatorial protein knockdown ; reverse-phase protein arrays
    Abstract: The elucidation of cross-talk events between intersecting signaling pathways is one main challenge in biological research. The complexity of protein networks, composed of different pathways, requires novel strategies and techniques to reveal relevant interrelations. Here, we established a combinatorial RNAi strategy for systematic single, double, and triple knockdown, and we measured the residual mRNAs and proteins quantitatively by quantitative real-time PCR and reverse-phase protein arrays, respectively, as a prerequisite for data analysis. Our results show that the parallel knockdown of at least three different genes is feasible while keeping both untargeted silencing and cytotoxicity low. The technique was validated by investigating the interplay of tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB2 and its downstream targets Akt-1 and MEK1 in cell invasion. This experimental approach combines multiple gene knockdown with a subsequent quantitative validation of reduced protein expression and is a major advancement toward the analysis of signaling pathways in systems biology
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17420474
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; Germany ; PATHWAY ; CLASSIFICATION ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; GENOME ; ACCURACY ; BIOLOGY ; TARGET ; gene expression ; MICROARRAY DATA ; DATABASE ; RE ; databases ; analysis ; methods ; HIGH-THROUGHPUT ; technique ; CANDIDATE ; microbiology ; ENGLAND ; biotechnology ; ONTOLOGIES
    Abstract: Background: High-throughput technologies like functional screens and gene expression analysis produce extended lists of candidate genes. Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis is a commonly used and well established technique to test for the statistically significant over-representation of particular pathways. A shortcoming of this method is however, that most genes that are investigated in the experiments have very sparse functional or pathway annotation and therefore cannot be the target of such an analysis. The approach presented here aims to assign lists of genes with limited annotation to previously described functional gene collections or pathways. This works by comparing InterPro domain signatures of the candidate gene lists with domain signatures of gene sets derived from known classifications, e. g. KEGG pathways. Results: In order to validate our approach, we designed a simulation study. Based on all pathways available in the KEGG database, we create test gene lists by randomly selecting pathway genes, removing these genes from the known pathways and adding variable amounts of noise in the form of genes not annotated to the pathway. We show that we can recover pathway memberships based on the simulated gene lists with high accuracy. We further demonstrate the applicability of our approach on a biological example. Conclusion: Results based on simulation and data analysis show that domain based pathway enrichment analysis is a very sensitive method to test for enrichment of pathways in sparsely annotated lists of genes. An R based software package domainsignatures, to routinely perform this analysis on the results of high-throughput screening, is available via Bioconductor
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18177498
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  • 4
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; MODELS ; TYROSINE KINASE ; LUNG-CANCER ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; GENE ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; FAMILY ; IMPACT ; BIOLOGY ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR ; SEQUENCE ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; HUMAN GENOME ; CAENORHABDITIS-ELEGANS ; NETHERLANDS ; systems biology ; QUANTITATIVE-ANALYSIS ; RECEPTORS ; PROTEOMICS ; signaling ; SINGLE ; molecular biology ; FAMILIES ; RNA INTERFERENCE ; regulation ; TECHNOLOGY ; RNAi ; CLINICAL-RESPONSE ; PROGRESS ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTORS ; SIGNALING NETWORK ; QUANTITATIVE PROTEOMICS ; FEDERATION ; Vision ; PROTEIN-INTERACTION NETWORK ; DOMAIN SIGNATURES ; ERBB-signaling network ; HER2 OVEREXPRESSION ; Micro RNA
    Abstract: Substantial progress in functional genomic and proteomic technologies has opened new perspectives in biomedical research. The sequence of the human genome has been mostly determined and opened new visions on its complexity and regulation. New technologies, like RNAi and protein arrays, allow gathering knowledge beyond single gene analysis. Increasingly, biological processes are studied with systems biological approaches, where qualitative and quantitative data of the components are utilized to model the respective processes, to predict effects of perturbations, and to then refine these models after experimental testing. Here, we describe the potential of applying functional genomics and proteomics, taking the ERBB family of growth-factor receptors as an example to study the signaling network and its impact on cancer. (C) 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19303877
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  • 5
    Keywords: CDNA ; CLONES ; BIOLOGY ; alternative splicing ; CDNAS ; ASSEMBLIES ; assembly ; ANNOTATION ; COMPLETE GENOM
    Abstract: The human genome sequence defines our inherent biological potential; the realization of the biology encoded therein requires knowledge of the function of each gene. Currently, our knowledge in this area is still limited. Several lines of investigation have been used to elucidate the structure and function of the genes in the human genome. Even so, gene prediction remains a difficult task, as the varieties of transcripts of a gene may vary to a great extent. We thus performed an exhaustive integrative characterization of 41,118 full-length cDNAs that capture the gene transcripts as complete functional cassettes, providing an unequivocal report of structural and functional diversity at the gene level. Our international collaboration has validated 21,037 human gene candidates by analysis of high-quality full-length cDNA clones through curation using unified criteria. This led to the identification of 5,155 new gene candidates. It also manifested the most reliable way to control the quality of the cDNA clones. We have developed a human gene database, called the H-Invitational Database (H-InvDB; http://www.h-invitational.jp/). It provides the following: integrative annotation of human genes, description of gene structures, details of novel alternative splicing isoforms, non-protein-coding RNAs, functional domains, subcellular localizations, metabolic pathways, predictions of protein three-dimensional structure, mapping of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identification of polymorphic microsatellite repeats within human genes, and comparative results with mouse full-length cDNAs. The H-InvDB analysis has shown that up to 4% of the human genome sequence (National Center for Biotechnology Information build 34 assembly) may contain misassembled or missing regions. We found that 6.5% of the human gene candidates (1,377 loci) did not have a good protein-coding open reading frame, of which 296 loci are strong candidates for nonprotein-coding RNA genes. In addition, among 72,027 uniquely mapped SNPs and insertions/deletions localized within human genes, 13,215 nonsynonymous SNPs, 315 nonsense SNPs, and 452 indels occurred in coding regions. Together with 25 polymorphic microsatellite repeats present in coding regions, they may alter protein structure, causing phenotypic effects or resulting in disease. The H-InvDB platform represents a substantial contribution to resources needed for the exploration of human biology and pathology
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15103394
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; INHIBITOR ; proliferation ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; KINASE ; INFORMATION ; TOOL ; DISEASE ; GENE ; GENES ; GENOME ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; transcription ; TUMORS ; RESOLUTION ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; BIOLOGY ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; MOUSE ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROGRESSION ; ASSAY ; microarrays ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; STRATEGIES ; DNA-REPLICATION ; REPLICATION ; signaling ; RE ; TUMORIGENICITY ; genomics ; TRANSITION ; DNA replication ; C-ELEGANS ; cell proliferation ; PROTEIN-ANALYSIS ; development ; ASSAYS ; DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES ; high throughput ; HIGH-THROUGHPUT ; LONG ; PRIME ; PRINCIPLES ; REPRESSOR ; ROLES
    Abstract: Cancer transcription microarray studies commonly deliver long lists of "candidate" genes that are putatively associated with the respective disease. For many of these genes, no functional information, even less their relevance in pathologic conditions, is established as they were identified in large-scale genomics approaches. Strategies and tools are thus needed to distinguish genes and proteins with mere tumor association from those causally related to cancer. Here, we describe a functional profiling approach, where we analyzed 103 previously uncharacterized genes in cancer relevant assays that probed their effects on DNA replication (cell proliferation). The genes had previously been identified as differentially expressed in genome-wide microarray studies of tumors. Using an automated high-throughput assay with single-cell resolution, we discovered seven activators and nine repressors of DNA replication. These were further characterized for effects on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling (G(1)-S transition) and anchorage-independent growth (tumorigenicity). One activator and one inhibitor protein of ERK1/2 activation and three repressors of anchorage-independent growth were identified. Data from tumor and functional profiling make these proteins novel prime candidates for further in-depth study of their roles in cancer development and progression. We have established a novel functional profiling strategy that links genomics to cell biology and showed its potential for discerning cancer relevant modulators of the cell cycle in the candidate lists from microarray studies
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16140941
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  • 7
    Keywords: COMBINATION ; Germany ; GENERATION ; GENOME ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; antibodies ; antibody ; microarrays ; ARRAYS ; NUMBER ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; FUSION ; FUSION PROTEINS ; SURFACE ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES ; IMMOBILIZATION ; PROTEOMICS ; protein microarray ; PROTEIN MICROARRAYS ; FUSION PROTEIN ; SERUM ; molecular biology ; molecular ; RECOMBINANT ; ARRAY ; RESOURCE ; ANTIBODY MICROARRAYS ; CHIP ; 3D ; monoclonal antibodies ; monoclonal antibody ; ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IGE ; DYES ; FLUORESCENT DYES
    Abstract: To process large numbers of samples in parallel is one potential of protein microarrays for research and diagnostics. However, the application of protein arrays is currently hampered by the lack of comprehensive technological knowledge about the suitability of 2-D and 3-D slide surface coatings. We have performed a systematic study to analyze how both surface types perform in combination with different fluorescent dyes to generate significant and reproducible data. In total, we analyzed more than 100 slides containing 1152 spots each. Slides were probed against different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant fusion proteins. We found two surface coatings to be most suitable for protein and antibody (Ab) immobilization. These were further subjected to quantitative analyses by evaluating intraslide and slide-to-slide reproducibilities, and the linear range of target detection. in summary, we demonstrate that only suitable combinations of surface and fluorescent dyes allow the generation of highly reproducible data
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16267812
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  • 8
    Keywords: CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; PATHWAYS ; QUANTIFICATION ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; SAMPLES ; DRUG ; BIOLOGY ; SIGNAL ; ASSAY ; microarrays ; EFFICIENT ; ELECTROPHORESIS ; BIOPSY ; PROTEOMICS ; signaling ; RECOMBINANT ; RE ; CAPACITY ; ARRAY ; GELS ; analysis ; methods ; BIOPSIES ; signaling networks ; protein arrays ; protein quantification ; reverse phase protein microarray
    Abstract: The advancement of efficient technologies to comply with the needs of systems biology and drug discovery has so far not received adequate attention. A substantial bottleneck for the time-resolved quantitative description of signaling networks is the limited throughput and the inadequate sensitivity of currently established methods. Here, we present an improved protein microarray-based approach towards the sensitive detection of proteins in the fg-range which is based on signal detection in the near-infrared range. The high sensitivity of the assay permits the specific quantification of proteins derived from as little as only 20 000 cells with an error rate of only 5%. The capacity is limited to the analysis of up to 500 different samples per microarray. Protein abundance is determined qualitatively, and quantitatively, if recombinant protein is available. This novel approach was called IPAQ (infrared-based protein arrays with quantitative readout). IPAQ offers a highly sensitive experimental approach superior to the established standard protein quantification technologies, and is suitable for quantitative proteomics. Employing the IPAQ approach, a detailed analysis of activated signaling networks in biopsy samples and of crosstalk between signaling modules as required in drug discovery strategies can easily be performed
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17309101
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; INVASION ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; CLASSIFICATION ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TUMORS ; TIME ; kidney ; primary ; FLOW ; BIOLOGY ; CELL-CYCLE ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; PROGRESSION ; PATTERNS ; MEMBRANE ; METASTASIS ; genetics ; metastases ; CANCER-CELLS ; ONCOGENE ; heredity ; molecular biology ; molecular ; E-cadherin ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; INCREASE ; LEVEL ; LOSSES ; REDUCED EXPRESSION ; ENGLAND ; INCREASES ; detachment ; cell junctions ; initial cell-cell contact
    Abstract: Vacuole membrane protein 1 (Vmp1) is described as a cancer-relevant cell cycle modulator, but the function of this protein and its mode of action in tumor progression are still unknown. In this study, we show that the VMP1 mRNA level is significantly reduced in kidney cancer metastases as compared to primary tumors. Further, VMP1 expression is also decreased in the invasive breast cancer cell lines HCC1954 and MDA-MB-231 as compared to the non-invasive cell lines MCF-12A, T-47D and MCF-7. We show for the first time that Vmp1 is a plasma membrane protein and an essential component of initial cell-cell contacts and tight junction formation. It interacts with the tight junction protein Zonula Occludens-1 and colocalizes in spots between neighboring HEK293 cells. Downregulation of VMP1 by RNAi results in loss of cell adherence, and increases the invasion capacity of the non-invasive kidney cancer cell line Caki-2. In conclusion, our findings establish Vmp1 to be a novel cell-cell adhesion protein and that its expression level determines the invasion and metastatic potential of cancer cells
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17724469
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  • 10
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; CELL ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; KINASE ; PATHWAY ; QUANTIFICATION ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; DISTINCT ; GENOME ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; ACTIVATION ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; STIMULATION ; microarrays ; ARRAYS ; systems biology ; PROTEOMICS ; EPIDERMAL-GROWTH-FACTOR ; signaling ; molecular biology ; molecular ; RE ; ARRAY ; EGFR ; analysis ; methods ; HIGH-THROUGHPUT ; HER2 ; GEFITINIB ; comparison ; BREAST-CANCER-CELLS ; EGF ; ERK1/2 ; reverse phase protein array ; HER2/neu ; herceptin
    Abstract: Protein microarrays allow highly accurate comparison and quantification of numerous biological samples in parallel while requiring only little material. This qualifies protein arrays for systems biology and clinical research where only limited sample material is available, but a precise read-out is required. With the introduction of signal normalization steps to monitor the drop size of manually contact-spotted RP protein arrays, the usefulness of normalizer proteins to ensure a high-throughput but inexpensive protein analysis was demonstrated. This approach was applied for the analysis of signaling through ERBB receptor activated kinases in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Activation of ERK1/2 and AKT by ERBB1 (EGFR), ERRB2 (HER2/neu), and ERBB3-4 was monitored in a time-resolved manner. Analysis of pathway activation by stimulation with epidermal growth factor and heregulin, or inhibition by blocking with gefitinib or herceptin allowed a characterization of the distinct signaling properties of the different ERBB receptor subtypes
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18351692
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