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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; MODEL ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; tumour ; ASSOCIATION ; PROGRESSION ; resistance ; PLASMA ; AGE ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; SWEDEN ; HIGH-LEVEL ; leptin ; insulin ; IGF-I ; ONCOLOGY ; REGRESSION ; RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY ; development ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; USA ; prospective ; prospective study ; STEROID-HORMONES ; odds ratio ; C-PEPTIDE ; ANDROGEN ; prostatic neoplasms ; LOGISTIC-REGRESSION ; GENERAL-POPULATION ; insulin resistance ; FASTING GLUCOSE ; TYPE-2 DIABETES-MELLITUS ; blood glucose ; META-REGRESSION ANALYSIS ; SERUM LEPTIN LEVELS
    Abstract: Factors related to insulin resistance have been implicated in prostate cancer development, however, few analytical studies support such an association. We performed a case control study on 392 prostate cancer cases and 392 matched controls nested in a prospective cohort in Northern Sweden. Plasma concentrations of C-peptide, leptin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting and post-load glucose were analysed and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) of prostate cancer. High levels of C-peptide, HOMA-IR, leptin and HbA1c were associated with significant decreases in risk of prostate cancer, with ORs for top vs. bottom quartile for C-peptide of 0.59 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.40-0.89; p(trend) = 0.008), HOMA-IR 0.60 (95% CI, 0.38-0.94; p(trend) = 0.03), leptin 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36-0.84; p(trend) = 0.006) and HbA1c 0.56 (95% CI, 0.35-0.91; p(trend) = 0.02). All studied factors were strongly inversely related to risk among men less than 59 years of age at blood sampling, but not among older men, with a significant heterogeneity between the groups for leptin (p(heterogeneity) = 0.006) and fasting glucose (p(heterogeneity) = 0.03). C-peptide and HOMA-IR were strongly inversely related to non-aggressive cancer but were non-significantly positively related to risk of aggressive disease (p(heterogeneity) = 0.007 and 0.01, respectively). Our data suggest that androgens, which are inversely associated with insulin resistance, are important in the early prostate cancer development, whereas insulin resistance related factors may be important for tumour progression. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17278097
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; carcinoma ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; cohort study ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; SWEDEN ; CARCINOMAS ; body mass index ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; WEIGHT ; BODY-SIZE ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; metabolic syndrome ; blood pressure ; SERUM-LEVELS ; prospective ; CORONARY HEART-DISEASE ; INCREASED RISK ; CANCERS ; CANCER-RISK ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; C-PEPTIDE ; BODY-MASS ; endometrial neoplasms ; journals ; AGED NORWEGIAN MEN ; metabolic syndrome X
    Abstract: The authors examined the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk of incident endometnal and fatal uterine corpus cancer within a large prospective cohort study Approximately 290,000 women from Austria, Norway, and Sweden were enrolled during 1974-2005, with measurements of height, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and circulating levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and tnglycendes Relative risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. The metabolic syndrome was assessed as a composite z score, as the standardized sum of z scores for body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and tnglycendes. A total of 917 endonnetnal carcinomas and 129 fatal cancers were identified Increased risks of incident endometnal carcinoma and fatal uterine corpus cancer were seen for the metabolic syndrome factors combined, as well as for individual factors (except for cholesterol) The relative risk of endometnal carcinoma for the metabolic syndrome was 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1 28, 1 46) per 1-unit increment of z score The positive associations between metabolic syndrome factors (both individually and combined) and endometrial carcinoma were confined to the heaviest women. The association between the metabolic syndrome and endometnal carcinoma risk seems to go beyond the risk conferred by obesity alone, particularly in women with a high body mass index
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20219764
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK-FACTORS ; FREQUENCY ; LYMPHOCYTES ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; SUBTYPES ; HEALTHY-INDIVIDUALS
    Abstract: PURPOSE: The strong association between t(14;18) translocation and follicular lymphoma (FL) is well known. However, the determinants of this chromosomal aberration and their role in t(14;18) associated FL remain to be established. METHODS: t(14;18) frequency within the B cell lymphoma 2 major breakpoint region was determined for 135 incident FL cases and 251 healthy controls as part of a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed in DNA extracted from blood samples taken at recruitment. The relationship between prevalence and frequency of the translocation with baseline anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary factors in cases and controls was determined. Unconditional logistic regression was used to explore whether the risk of FL associated with these factors differed in t(14;18)(+) as compared to t(14;18)(-) cases. RESULTS: Among incident FL cases, educational level (chi (2) p = 0.021) and height (chi (2) p = 0.025) were positively associated with t(14;18) prevalence, and cases with high frequencies [t(14;18)(HF)] were significantly taller (t test p value = 0.006). These findings were not replicated in the control population, although there were a number of significant associations with dietary variables. Further analyses revealed that height was a significant risk factor for t(14;18)(+) FL [OR 6.31 (95 % CI 2.11, 18.9) in the tallest versus the shortest quartile], but not t(14;18)(-) cases. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a potential role for lifestyle factors in the prevalence and frequency of the t(14;18) translocation. The observation that the etiology of FL may differ by t(14;18) status, particularly with regard to height, supports the subdivision of FL by translocation status.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26424368
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; SUPPORT ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; METABOLISM ; INDEX ; HEALTH ; colorectal cancer ; OBESITY ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; GLUCOSE ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; nutrition ; leptin ; BODIES ; INCREASE ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; LEVEL ; EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVIDENCE ; methods ; VARIABLES ; CANCER-RISK ; colorectal neoplasms ; ENGLAND ; C-PEPTIDE ; MALE SMOKERS ; Adiponectin ; insulin resistance ; body mass ; blood glucose ; NORTHERN SWEDEN ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE SYNDROME
    Abstract: Objective: To examine the relation of well-known factors of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as well as related circulating factors, with risk of colorectal cancer. Methods: We performed a case control study of 306 colorectal cancer cases and 595 matched controls nested in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Cohort. Levels of C-peptide, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), leptin and adiponectin were measured in cryopreserved samples. Body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting and post-load plasma glucose, had been measured in a subcohort. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) of disease, including risk assessments for the MetS factors: obesity (BMI430 kg m(-2)), hypertension (blood pressure 〉= 140/90 mmHg or use of anti-hypertensive drugs) and hyperglycaemia (fasting glucose 〉= 6.1 mmol 1(-1) or post-load glucose in capillary plasma 〉= 8.9 mmol 1(-1)). Results: None of the studied variables were significantly associated with risk across quartiles. Presence of obesity, hypertension and hyperglycaemia significantly increased the risk of colorectal cancer; OR for three vs null factors was 2.57 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.20-5.52; P-trend = 0.0021), as compared to a 30 to 70% increased risk for the factors in single. Similarly, top decile levels of C-peptide, HbA1c and leptin/adiponectin ratio were associated with an increased risk; ORs for top vs deciles 1-9 were 1.56 (95% CI 0.93-2.62; P = 0.090), 1.83 (95% CI 1.00-3.36; P = 0.051) and 1.50 (95% CI 0.83-2.71; P = 0.18), respectively. Conclusions: Our study support the view that components of the MetS increase risk of colorectal cancer, and further suggests that only very high levels of metabolic factors confer an increased risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17878894
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; FOLLOW-UP ; CANCER MORTALITY ; COHORT ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; incidence ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; RISKS ; IMPACT ; RISK-FACTORS ; BIOMARKERS ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; prevention ; HEALTH ; AGE ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; SWEDEN ; cancer risk ; HYPERTENSION ; PROJECT ; body mass index ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; ONCOLOGY ; REGRESSION ; WEIGHT ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; METAANALYSIS ; biomarker ; methods ; metabolic syndrome ; blood pressure ; CANCER INCIDENCE ; PREMENOPAUSAL ; INCREASED RISK ; CANCER-RISK ; CANCER-MORTALITY ; BODY-MASS ; breast cancer risk ; INTERVENTIONS ; COMPLETENESS ; REGRESSION DILUTION
    Abstract: Background: Few studies have assessed the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as an entity in relation to breast cancer risk, and results have been inconsistent. We aimed to examine the association between MetS factors (individually and combined) and risk of breast cancer incidence and mortality. Methods: Two hundred ninety thousand women from Austria, Norway, and Sweden were enrolled during 1974-2005, with measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Relative risks (RR) of breast cancer were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression for each MetS factor in quintiles and for standardized levels (z-scores) and for a composite z-score for the MetS. Results: There were 4,862 incident cases of breast cancer and 633 deaths from breast cancer identified. In women below age 50, there was a decreased risk of incident cancer for the MetS (per 1-unit increment of z-score; RR, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.90) as well as for the individual factors (except for glucose). The lowest risks were seen among the heaviest women. In women above age 60, there was an increased risk of breast cancer mortality for the MetS (RR, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.45) and for blood pressure and glucose. The strongest association with mortality was seen for increased glucose concentrations. Conclusions: The MetS was associated with a decreased risk of incident breast cancer in women below age 50 with high body mass index, and with an increased risk of breast cancer mortality in women above 60. Impact: Lifestyle interventions as recommended for cardiovascular disease prevention may be of value to prevent breast cancer mortality in postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 19(7); 1737-45. (C) 2010 AACR
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20615887
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