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  • BODY-MASS INDEX  (4)
  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; MODEL ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; tumour ; ASSOCIATION ; PROGRESSION ; resistance ; PLASMA ; AGE ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; SWEDEN ; HIGH-LEVEL ; leptin ; insulin ; IGF-I ; ONCOLOGY ; REGRESSION ; RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY ; development ; GROWTH-FACTOR-I ; LEVEL ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; USA ; prospective ; prospective study ; STEROID-HORMONES ; odds ratio ; C-PEPTIDE ; ANDROGEN ; prostatic neoplasms ; LOGISTIC-REGRESSION ; GENERAL-POPULATION ; insulin resistance ; FASTING GLUCOSE ; TYPE-2 DIABETES-MELLITUS ; blood glucose ; META-REGRESSION ANALYSIS ; SERUM LEPTIN LEVELS
    Abstract: Factors related to insulin resistance have been implicated in prostate cancer development, however, few analytical studies support such an association. We performed a case control study on 392 prostate cancer cases and 392 matched controls nested in a prospective cohort in Northern Sweden. Plasma concentrations of C-peptide, leptin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting and post-load glucose were analysed and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) of prostate cancer. High levels of C-peptide, HOMA-IR, leptin and HbA1c were associated with significant decreases in risk of prostate cancer, with ORs for top vs. bottom quartile for C-peptide of 0.59 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.40-0.89; p(trend) = 0.008), HOMA-IR 0.60 (95% CI, 0.38-0.94; p(trend) = 0.03), leptin 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36-0.84; p(trend) = 0.006) and HbA1c 0.56 (95% CI, 0.35-0.91; p(trend) = 0.02). All studied factors were strongly inversely related to risk among men less than 59 years of age at blood sampling, but not among older men, with a significant heterogeneity between the groups for leptin (p(heterogeneity) = 0.006) and fasting glucose (p(heterogeneity) = 0.03). C-peptide and HOMA-IR were strongly inversely related to non-aggressive cancer but were non-significantly positively related to risk of aggressive disease (p(heterogeneity) = 0.007 and 0.01, respectively). Our data suggest that androgens, which are inversely associated with insulin resistance, are important in the early prostate cancer development, whereas insulin resistance related factors may be important for tumour progression. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17278097
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  • 2
    Keywords: FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; MORTALITY ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; DIABETES-MELLITUS ; METAANALYSIS ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; CUTANEOUS MALIGNANT-MELANOMA ; BASAL-CELL CARCINOMA ; REGRESSION DILUTION
    Abstract: Background Little is known about the associations of metabolic aberrations with malignant melanoma (MM) and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Objectives To assess the associations between metabolic factors (both individually and combined) and the risk of skin cancer in the large prospective Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project (Me-Can). Methods During a mean follow-up of 12 years of the Me-Can cohort, 1728 (41% women) incident MM, 230 (23% women) fatal MM and 1145 (33% women) NMSC were identified. Most NMSC cases (76%) were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (873, 33% women). Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression for quintiles and standardized z-scores (with a mean of 0 and SD of 1) of body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and for a combined metabolic syndrome score. Risk estimates were corrected for random error in the measurements. Results Blood pressure per unit increase of z-score was associated with an increased risk of incident MM cases in men and women [HR 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.31 and HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.03-1.36, respectively] and fatal MM cases among women (HR 2.39, 95% CI 1.58-3.64). In men, all quintiles for BMI above the reference were associated with a higher risk of incident MM. In women, SCC NMSC risk increased across quintiles for glucose levels (P-trend 0.02) and there was a trend with triglyceride concentration (P-trend 0.09). Conclusion These findings suggest that mechanisms linked to blood pressure may be involved in the pathogenesis of MM. SCC NMSC in women could be related to glucose and lipid metabolism.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22530854
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; cholesterol ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; ADULTS ; METAANALYSIS ; blood pressure ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; OVERWEIGHT ; colorectal neoplasms ; INDIVIDUAL DATA ; blood glucose ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE SYNDROME ; metabolic syndrome X ; REGRESSION DILUTION ; triglycerides ; VASCULAR MORTALITY
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer, but the modest size of previous studies precluded detailed characterization of the role of individual MetS factors and their interaction on risk. METHODS: In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project (Me-Can), data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were available for 578,700 men and women. The mean age of participants at baseline was 44 years, and the mean follow-up was 12 years. Relative risks (RR) of colorectal cancer per 1 standard deviation increment in Z score of factors and for a combined MetS score, were calculated from Cox regression models, including adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: During follow-up, 2834 men and 1861 women were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The RR of colorectal cancer for the MetS score was 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.32) in men, and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.06-1.22) in women. Significant associations also were observed in men for BMI (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13), blood pressure (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.18), and triglycerides (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.28) and, in women, for BMI (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15). There was no significant positive interaction between the metabolic factors on risk. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of metabolic factors and some separate factors was related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer, but there was no interaction between metabolic factors.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21171019
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; cohort study ; incidence ; MORTALITY ; ASSOCIATION ; AGE ; ovarian cancer ; WOMEN ; ADULTS ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; metabolic syndrome ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; SERUM-CHOLESTEROL ; REGRESSION DILUTION ; ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES ; CONOR
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: No studies have so far evaluated the impact of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as an entity on ovarian cancer risk. The authors aimed to examine the association between factors in the MetS, individually and combined, and risk of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS: Altogether, 290,000 women from Austria, Norway and Sweden were enrolled during 1974-2005, with measurements taken of height, weight, blood pressure and levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. Relative risks (RRs) of ovarian cancer were estimated using Cox regression for each MetS factor in quintiles and for standardized levels (z-scores), and for a composite z-score for the MetS. RRs were corrected for random error in measurements. RESULTS: During follow-up, 644 epithelial ovarian cancers and 388 deaths from ovarian cancer were identified. There was no overall association between MetS and ovarian cancer risk. Increasing levels of cholesterol [RR 1.52, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01-2.29, per 1-U increment of z-score] and blood pressure (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.12-2.86) conferred, however, increased risks of mucinous and endometrioid tumours, respectively. In women below the age of 50 years, there was increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality for MetS (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.00-2.30). Increasing levels of BMI (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.37) conferred increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality in women above the age of 50 years. CONCLUSION: There was no overall association between MetS and ovarian cancer risk. However, increasing levels of cholesterol and blood pressure increased the risks of mucinous and endometrioid tumours, respectively. Increasing levels of BMI conferred an increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality in women above the age of 50 years.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21984693
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