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  • BODY-MASS INDEX  (4)
  • 1
    Keywords: FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; MORTALITY ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; DIABETES-MELLITUS ; METAANALYSIS ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; CUTANEOUS MALIGNANT-MELANOMA ; BASAL-CELL CARCINOMA ; REGRESSION DILUTION
    Abstract: Background Little is known about the associations of metabolic aberrations with malignant melanoma (MM) and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Objectives To assess the associations between metabolic factors (both individually and combined) and the risk of skin cancer in the large prospective Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project (Me-Can). Methods During a mean follow-up of 12 years of the Me-Can cohort, 1728 (41% women) incident MM, 230 (23% women) fatal MM and 1145 (33% women) NMSC were identified. Most NMSC cases (76%) were squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (873, 33% women). Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression for quintiles and standardized z-scores (with a mean of 0 and SD of 1) of body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and for a combined metabolic syndrome score. Risk estimates were corrected for random error in the measurements. Results Blood pressure per unit increase of z-score was associated with an increased risk of incident MM cases in men and women [HR 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.31 and HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.03-1.36, respectively] and fatal MM cases among women (HR 2.39, 95% CI 1.58-3.64). In men, all quintiles for BMI above the reference were associated with a higher risk of incident MM. In women, SCC NMSC risk increased across quintiles for glucose levels (P-trend 0.02) and there was a trend with triglyceride concentration (P-trend 0.09). Conclusion These findings suggest that mechanisms linked to blood pressure may be involved in the pathogenesis of MM. SCC NMSC in women could be related to glucose and lipid metabolism.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22530854
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; cholesterol ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; ADULTS ; METAANALYSIS ; blood pressure ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; OVERWEIGHT ; colorectal neoplasms ; INDIVIDUAL DATA ; blood glucose ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE SYNDROME ; metabolic syndrome X ; REGRESSION DILUTION ; triglycerides ; VASCULAR MORTALITY
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer, but the modest size of previous studies precluded detailed characterization of the role of individual MetS factors and their interaction on risk. METHODS: In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project (Me-Can), data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were available for 578,700 men and women. The mean age of participants at baseline was 44 years, and the mean follow-up was 12 years. Relative risks (RR) of colorectal cancer per 1 standard deviation increment in Z score of factors and for a combined MetS score, were calculated from Cox regression models, including adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: During follow-up, 2834 men and 1861 women were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The RR of colorectal cancer for the MetS score was 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.32) in men, and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.06-1.22) in women. Significant associations also were observed in men for BMI (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13), blood pressure (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.18), and triglycerides (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.28) and, in women, for BMI (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15). There was no significant positive interaction between the metabolic factors on risk. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of metabolic factors and some separate factors was related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer, but there was no interaction between metabolic factors.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21171019
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  • 3
    Keywords: WOMEN ; MEN ; DIABETES-MELLITUS ; ASSOCIATIONS ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; CANCER-RISK ; CAUSE-SPECIFIC MORTALITY ; CHILDHOOD SOCIOECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain. METHODS: We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual-participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies. RESULTS: For people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5-1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96-0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93-0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03-1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90-0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12-1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80-0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators. CONCLUSION: Adult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22825588
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; cohort study ; incidence ; MORTALITY ; ASSOCIATION ; AGE ; ovarian cancer ; WOMEN ; ADULTS ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; metabolic syndrome ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; SERUM-CHOLESTEROL ; REGRESSION DILUTION ; ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES ; CONOR
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: No studies have so far evaluated the impact of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as an entity on ovarian cancer risk. The authors aimed to examine the association between factors in the MetS, individually and combined, and risk of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS: Altogether, 290,000 women from Austria, Norway and Sweden were enrolled during 1974-2005, with measurements taken of height, weight, blood pressure and levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. Relative risks (RRs) of ovarian cancer were estimated using Cox regression for each MetS factor in quintiles and for standardized levels (z-scores), and for a composite z-score for the MetS. RRs were corrected for random error in measurements. RESULTS: During follow-up, 644 epithelial ovarian cancers and 388 deaths from ovarian cancer were identified. There was no overall association between MetS and ovarian cancer risk. Increasing levels of cholesterol [RR 1.52, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01-2.29, per 1-U increment of z-score] and blood pressure (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.12-2.86) conferred, however, increased risks of mucinous and endometrioid tumours, respectively. In women below the age of 50 years, there was increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality for MetS (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.00-2.30). Increasing levels of BMI (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.37) conferred increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality in women above the age of 50 years. CONCLUSION: There was no overall association between MetS and ovarian cancer risk. However, increasing levels of cholesterol and blood pressure increased the risks of mucinous and endometrioid tumours, respectively. Increasing levels of BMI conferred an increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality in women above the age of 50 years.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21984693
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