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  • BREAST  (2)
  • Thermal comfort  (2)
  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; cohort study ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; AGE ; ovarian cancer ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; UNITED-STATES ; parity ; REPRODUCTIVE HISTORY ; HORMONAL FACTORS ; PROGESTERONE-RECEPTOR ; WHITE WOMEN ; oral contraceptive use
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: It is well established that parity and use of oral contraceptives reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, but the associations with other reproductive variables are less clear. METHODS: We examined the associations of oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors with ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 327 396 eligible women, 878 developed ovarian cancer over an average of 9 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models stratified by centre and age, and adjusted for smoking status, body mass index, unilateral ovariectomy, simple hysterectomy, menopausal hormone therapy, and mutually adjusted for age at menarche, age at menopause, number of full-term pregnancies and duration of oral contraceptive use. RESULTS: Women who used oral contraceptives for 10 or more years had a significant 45% (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.75) lower risk compared with users of 1 year or less (P-trend, 〈0.01). Compared with nulliparous women, parous women had a 29% (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59-0.87) lower risk, with an 8% reduction in risk for each additional pregnancy. A high age at menopause was associated with a higher risk of ovarian cancer (〉52 vs 〈= 45 years: HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.06-1.99; P-trend, 0.02). Age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, incomplete pregnancies and breastfeeding were not associated with risk. CONCLUSION: This study shows a strong protective association of oral contraceptives and parity with ovarian cancer risk, a higher risk with a late age at menopause, and no association with other reproductive factors.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21915124
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; prevention ; WOMEN ; CALIBRATION ; REGRESSION ; METAANALYSIS ; DAIRY-PRODUCTS ; micronutrients ; ADOLESCENT DIET ; FRENCH E3N COHORT ; SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE
    Abstract: Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a mean follow-up of 8.8 yr, 7760 incident invasive breast cancer cases were identified among 319,985 women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of vitamin D intake, HR and 95% CI were 1.07 (0.87-1.32) and 1.02 (0.90-1.16) for pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively. The corresponding HR and 95% CIs for calcium intake were 0.98 (0.80-1.19) and 0.90 (0.79-1.02), respectively. For calcium intake in postmenopausal women, the test for trend was borderline statistically significant (P(trend) = 0.05). There was no significant interaction between vitamin D and calcium intake and cancer risk (P(interaction) = 0.57 and 0.22 in pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively). In this large prospective cohort, we found no evidence for an association between dietary vitamin D or calcium intake and breast cancer risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23441605
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Alliesthesia ; Circadian variations ; Onset of sweating ; Thermal comfort ; Thermoregulatory set point
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Different methods of quantifying thermal alliesthesia were used to examine the circadian variations of thermal comfort. At eight different times of the 24 h day, four subjects were exposed to a constant room temperature of 25°C. After 30 min rest, the subjects performed 50 W bicycle ergometer work for 45 min. A 5 s temperature stimulus of 15°, 20°, 25°, 30°, 35°, and 38°C was applied on the hand, forehead, and back of the neck. For each stimulus the subjects voted their degree of thermal comfort on the subjective thermal comfort scale, ranging from +2 for very pleasant to −2 for very unpleasant. The most pleasant temperature on the back of the neck was chosen by voluntary control. This procedure was performed at the start and repeated every 15 min throughout the exposure time. A 5:5 × 2.7 cm2 Peltier thermode was used to give the temperature stimuli. Voluntary control voting was carried out using the temperature control knob without looking at the temperature scale of the thermode. The results suggest that during rest in a state of thermal neutrality the core temperature is about 0.06°C lower than the thermoregulatory set point (Cabanac et al. 1976; Strempel et al. 1976). This deviation (Trect - Tset) from the set point is known in man-made servo-systems as the load error (Benzinger 1979). During rest in an atmosphere of thermal comfort, the “load error” in the human thermostat is found to be negative (Cabanac et al. 1976; Strempel et al. 1976; Benzinger 1979), i.e., Tset 〉 Trect, where Trect is the prevailing core temperature and Tset, is the thermoregulatory set point. The small deviation from the set point is viewed as being necessary to sustain the response and to keep the temperature in equilibrium between production and loss of heat (Benzinger 1979). Thermal comfort limits during work rise from the early morning to the afternoon and then fall slowly towards the minimum level in the morning. The circadian variations of the core temperature load error associated with onset of sweating have a phase shift of 180° (12 h) with the alliesthesial reactions. Using our results and the results from Cabanac et al. (1976), it has been possible to write a circadian thermoregulatory set function to estimate the set point at any point of day time.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Thermal comfort ; Thermal pleasantness ; Thermal stress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The degree of pleasantness or unpleasantness of thermal sensation aroused by a particular peripheral thermal stimulus has been shown to be an indicator of thermal state of the body in relation to the thermoregulatory set point. This phenomenon is known as thermal alliesthesia. The quantification of thermal alliesthesia was possible using two methods: (1) A set of temperature stimuli (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 38
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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