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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Hairpin DNA ; Chloroplast genome ; Barley ; DNA replication
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Total DNA was extracted from young green and etiolated barley leaf shoots and run on 2D neutral/alkaline agarose gels. This technique showed the presence of molecules which behaved as though their single-stranded length was twice their double-stranded length. This behaviour was sensitive to S1 nuclease. Our conclusion is that these DNAs are hairpin molecules. They are homologous to sequences found throughout the barley chloroplast genome. This type of molecule is present in uncut DNA with a continuous range of sizes varying between 0.5 and 15 kbp in our experimental conditions. The origin and possible biological function of these molecules is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Barley ; Ear emergence ; Height ; Linkage ; Quantitative inheritance ; Vernalization requirement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The quantitative traits height and ear-emergence date were analyzed in the F2 progeny of a cross between a tall winter barley cultivar (Gerbel) and a short spring barley cultivar (Heriot). The trait distributions were found to be related to the genotypes at two biochemical loci, β-amylase (Bmy1) and water-soluble protein (Wsp3), which are known to lie on the long arm of chromosome 4. Linkages between each trait and the markers were investigated using normal mixture models. The two parental phenotypes and the heterozygote phenotype of Bmy1 were distinguishable so the model could be used directly to estimate linkage between Bmy1 and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for height (Height). The Gerbel homozygote and heterozygote phenotype of Wsp3 could not be distinguished and the model was adapted accordingly. The proportion of plants requiring vernalization was consistent with control by two independent genes acting epistatically, and a normal mixture model based on a two-gene hypothesis was fitted to the distribution of ear-emergence date to estimate linkage between the marker loci and a QTL for ear-emergence date (Vrn1). The parameters of each model were the recombination fraction between the marker locus and the QTL and the means and standard deviations associated with each QTL genotype; these were estimated by maximum likelihood. The fitted distributions correspond well to those observed and the order of the loci along the chromosome is inferred to be Height — Vrn1 — Bmy1 — Wsp3, with Wsp3 being the most distal.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Rust resistance ; rp1 ; Barley ; Maize ; Rpg1 ; Puccinia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A number of agronomically important grasses (sorghum, wheat, panicum, sugar cane, oats, rice and barley) are shown to contain sequences homologous to rp1, a maize gene that confers race-specific resistance to the rust fungus Puccinia sorghi. Mapping of rp1-related sequences in barley identified three unlinked loci on chromosomes 1HL, 3HL and 7HS. The locus located on chromosome 7HS comprises a small gene family of at least four members, two of which were isolated and are predicted to encode nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins that are respectively 58% and 60% identical to the maize rp1 protein. Evidence of positive selection for sequence diversification acting upon these two barley genes was observed; however, diversifying selection was restricted to the carboxy terminal half of the LRR domain. One of these rp1 homologous genes cosegregated with the barley Rpg1 stem rust resistance gene amongst 148 members of the Steptoe × Morex double haploid mapping family. Three other unrelated resistance gene-like sequences, potentially encoding NBS-LRR proteins, are also shown to be linked to the Rpg1 locus but not cosegregating with the gene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Barley ; QTLs ; Linkage ; Yield ; Markers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been revealed for characters in a segregating population from a spring barley cross between genotypes adapted to North-West Europe. Transgressive segregation was found for all the characters, which was confirmed by the regular detection of positive and negative QTLs from both parents. A QTL for all the agronomic, yield and grain characters measured except thousand grain weight was found in the region of the denso dwarfing gene locus. There were considerable differences between the location of QTLs found in the present study and those found in previous studies of North American germ plasm, revealing the diversity between the two gene pools. Thirty-one QTLs were detected in more than one environment for the 13 characters studied, although many more were detected in just one environment. Whilst biometrical analyses suggested the presence of epistasis in the genetic control of some characters, there was little evidence of interactions between the QTLs apart from those associated with yield. QTLs of large effect sometimes masked the presence of QTLs of smaller effect.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Straw ; Phytotoxins ; Acetic Acid ; Wheat ; Barley ; Cultivar ; Nitrogen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Acetic acid production over 10 days from fresh barley straw was greater than that from fresh wheat straw, but there were only minor consistent differences between different cultivars. The effect depended on the soil type on which the straw had been produced and acid production was greatest with the largest amounts of N fertilizer which had been used. The fertilizer also affected the C:N ratio of the straw
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current genetics 9 (1985), S. 671-678 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Plastid DNA ; Barley ; Anther culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Wheat and barley albino plants derived from anther culture contain plastid genomes which have suffered deletion. DNA molecules of the size of unit genomes exist in these plants. In some cases these may be linear genomes. In all cases a region near the T8 fragment of barley or the corresponding region of the wheat plastid genome has been retained. This region may therefore represent sequences sufficient for replication.
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