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  • Basal ganglia  (1)
  • Key words Multijoint movement control  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Parkinson’s disease ; Motor learning ; Interlimb coordination ; Basal ganglia ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The basal ganglia have traditionally been associated with motor control functions and this view has prevailed since the late nineteenth century. Recent experimental studies suggest that this neuroanatomical system is also critically involved in motor learning. In the present study, motor learning/transfer capabilities were compared between patients with Parkinson’s disease and a group of normal elderly people. Subjects practiced a bimanual coordination task that required continuous flexion-extension movements in the transverse plane with a 90° phase offset between the forearms. During acquisition, augmented visual feedback of the relative motions was provided in real time. The findings revealed improvements in the bimanual coordination pattern across practice in both groups when the augmented concurrent feedback was present. However, when transferred to performance conditions in which the augmented information was withheld, performance deteriorated (relative to the augmented condition) and this effect was more prevalent in the Parkinson patients. More specifically, no improvement in interlimb coordination was observed under nonaugmented feedback conditions across practice. Instead, a drift toward the preferred in-phase and anti-phase coordination patterns was evident. The present findings suggest that Parkinson patients can improve their performance on a new motor task, but they remain strongly dependent on augmented visual information to guide these newly acquired movements. The apparent adoption of a closed-loop control mode is accompanied with decreases in movement speed in order to use the feedback to ensure accuracy. When the augmented feedback is withheld and the movement pattern is to be controlled by means of intrinsic information feedback sources, performance is severely hampered. The findings are hypothesized to indicate that learning/transfer is affected in Parkinson patients who apparently prefer some constancy in the environmental contingencies under which practice takes place. The present findings are consistent with the notion that the basal ganglia form a critical neuroanatomical substrate for motor learning.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Multijoint movement control ; Elbow-wrist movement ; Interactive torques ; Coordination pattern
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The present paper focused on the role of mechanical factors arising from the multijoint structure of the musculoskeletal system and their use in the control of different patterns of cyclical elbow-wrist movements. Across five levels of cycling frequency (from 0.45 Hz up to 3.05 Hz), three movement patterns were analyzed: (1) unidirectional, including rotations at the elbow and wrist in the same direction; (2) bidirectional, with rotation at the joints in opposite directions, and (3) free-wrist pattern, which is characterized by alternating flexions and extensions at the elbow with the wrist relaxed. Angular position of both joints and electromyographic activity of biceps, triceps, the wrist flexor, and the wrist extensor were recorded. It was demonstrated that control at the elbow was principally different from control at the wrist. Elbow control in all three patterns was similar to that typically observed during single-joint movements: elbow accelerations-decelerations resulted from alternating activity of the elbow flexor and extensor and were largely independent of wrist motion at all frequency plateaus. The elbow muscles were responsible not only for the elbow movement, but also for the generation of interactive torques that played an important role in wrist control. There were two types of interactive torques exerted at the wrist: inertial torque arising from elbow motion and restraining torque arising from physical limits imposed on wrist rotation. These interactive torques were the primary source of wrist motion, whereas the main function of wrist-muscle activity was to intervene with the interactive effects and to adjust the wrist movement to comply with the required coordination pattern. The unidirectional pattern was more in agreement with interactive effects than the bidirectional pattern, thus causing their differential difficulty at moderate cycle frequencies. When cycling frequency was further increased, both the unidirectional and bidirectional movements lost their individual features and acquired features of the free-wrist pattern. The deterioration of the controlled patterns at high cycling frequencies suggests a crucial role for proprioceptive information in wrist control. These results are suppportive of a hierachical organization of control with respect to elbow-wrist coordination, during which the functions of control at the elbow and wrist are principally different: the elbow muscles generate movement of the whole linkage and the wrist muscles produce corrections of the movement necessary to fulfill the task.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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