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  • Inverted repeat  (5)
  • Base substitution  (1)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology
  • Springer  (6)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Genome evolution ; Rearrangement ; Inversion ; Brassica ; Base substitution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We examined the tempo and mode of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolution in six species of crucifers from two genera,Brassica andRaphanus. The six mtDNAs have undergone numerous internal rearrangements and therefore differ dramatically with respect to the sizes of their subgenomic circular chromosomes. Between 3 and 14 inversions must be postulated to account for the structural differences found between any two species. In contrast, these mtDNAs are extremely similar in primary sequence, differing at only 1–8 out of every 1000 bp. The point mutation rate in these plant mtDNAs is roughly 4 times slower than in land plant chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and 100 times slower than in animal mtDNA. Conversely, the rate of rearrangements is extraordinarily faster in plant mtDNA than in cpDNA and animal mtDNA.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current genetics 10 (1986), S. 823-833 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Inverted repeat ; Gene order ; Chloroplast genome arrangement ; Vascular plant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have constructed the first physical map of a gymnosperm chloroplast genome and compared its organization with those of a fern and several angiosperms by heterologous filter hybridization. The chloroplast genome of the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba consists of a 158 kb circular chromosome that contains a ribosomal RNA-encoding inverted repeat approximately 17 kb in size. Gene mapping experiments demonstrate a remarkable similarity in the linear order and absolute positions of the ribosomal RNA genes and of 17 protein genes in the cpDNAs of Ginkgo biloba, the fern Osmunda cinnamomea and the angiosperm Spinacia oleracea. Moreover, filter hybridizations using as probes cloned fragments that cover the entirety of the angiosperm chloroplast genome reveal a virtually colinear arrangement of homologous sequence elements in these genomes representing three divisions of vascular plants that diverged some 200–400 million years ago. The only major difference in chloroplast genome structure among these vascular plants involves the size of the rRNA-encoding inverted repeat, which is only 10 kb in Osmunda, 17 kb in Ginkgo, and about 25 kb in most angiosperms. This size variation appears to be the result of spreading of the repeat through previously single copy sequences, or the reverse process of shrinkage, unaccompanied by any overall change in genome complexity.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Inverted repeat ; Colinearity ; Flip-flop recombination ; Fern chloroplast DNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The evolution and recombination of chloroplast genome structure in the fern genus Osmunda were studied by comparative restriction site mapping and filter hybridization of chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) from three species — 0. cinnamomea, 0. claytoniana and 0. regalis. The three 144 kb circular genomes were found to be colinear in organization, indicating that no major inversions or transpositions had occurred during the approximately 70 million years since their radiation from a common ancestor. Although overall size and sequence arrangement are highly conserved in the three genomes, they differ by an extensive series of small deletions and insertions, ranging in size from 50 bp to 350 by and scattered more or less at random throughout the circular chromosomes. All three chloroplast genomes contain a large inverted repeat of approximately 10 kb in size. However, hybridizations using cloned fragments from the 0. cinnamomea and 0. regalis genomes revealed the absence of any dispersed repeats in at least 50% of the genome. Analysis with restriction enzymes that fail to cleave the 10 kb inverted repeat indicated that each of the three fern chloroplast genomes exists as an equimolar population of two isomeric circles differing only in the relative orientation of their two single copy regions. These two inversion isomers are inferred to result from high frequency intramolecular recombination between paired inverted repeat segments. In all aspects of their general organization, recombinational heterogeneity, and extent of structural rearrangement and length mutation, these fern chloroplast genomes resemble very closely the chloroplast genomes of most angiosperms.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Chloroplast genome evolution ; Ribosomal RNA and protein genes ; Inverted repeat ; Restriction endonucleases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Chloroplast DNA from the fern Osmunda einnamomea was isolated by a sucrose gradient procedure utilizing PEG to stabilize chloroplasts. Analysis with the restriction endonucleases PvuII, Sacl and BstEII indicates a chloroplast genome size of 144 kb. A physical map of the fragments produced by these three enzymes was constructed by filter hybridizations using purified PvuII fragments as hybridization probes. The Osmunda chloroplast genome is circular and contains an inverted repeat 8–13 kb in size. Gene probes from tobacco, corn and spinach were used to map the positions of six genes on the Osmunda chloroplast chromosome. The 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs are encoded by duplicate genes which lie within the inverted repeat. Genes for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, a photosystem II polypeptide, and the alpha and beta subunits of chloroplast coupling factor are located in three different segments of the large single copy region. The Osmunda chloroplast genome is remarkably similar in size, conformation, physical organization, and map positions of known genes, to chloroplast DNA from a number of angiosperms. The major difference between chloroplast DNA from this fern and angiosperms is that the inverted repeat is smaller in Osmunda (8–13 kb) than in angiosperms (22–25 kb).
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Gene mapping ; Rearrangements ; Chloroplast DNA evolution ; Inverted repeat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Cloned genes from tobacco, spinach, and pea were used as hybridization probes to localize 36 protein genes on the chloroplast chromosomes of four legumes — mung bean, common bean, soybean, and pea. The first three chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs), all of which retain a large inverted repeat, have an identical gene order with but one exception. A 78 kb segment encompassing nearly the entire large single copy region is inverted in mung bean and common bean relative to soybean and non-legumes. The simplest evolutionary explanation for this difference is a 78 kb inversion, with one endpoint between rps8 and infA and the second between psbA and rpl2. However, we can not rule out a two-step re-arrangement (consisting of successive expansion and contraction of the inverted repeat) leading to the relocation of a block of six ribosomal protein genes (rps19-rps8) from one end of the large single copy region to the other. Analysis of gene locations in pea cpDNA, which lacks the large inverted repeat, combined with cross-hybridization studies using 59 clones covering the mung bean genome, leads to a refined picture of the position and nature of the numerous rearrangements previously described in the pea genome. A minimum of eight large inversions are postulated to account for these rearrangements. None of these inversions disrupt groups of genes that are transcriptionally linked in angiosperm cpDNA. Rather, the end-points of inversions are associated with relatively spacer-rich segments of the genome, many of which contain tRNA genes. All of the pea-specific inversions are shown to be positionally distinct from those recently described in a closely related legume, broad bean.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Chloroplast genome evolution ; Inverted repeat ; Inversion ; Repeated sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have compared the sequence organization of four previously uncharacterized legume chloroplast DNAs - from alfalfa, lupine, wisteria and subclover — to that of legume chloroplast DNAs that either retain a large, ribosomal RNA-encoding inverted repeat (mung bean) or have deleted one half of this repeat (broad bean). The circular, 126 kilobase pair (kb) alfalfa chloroplast genome, like those of broad bean and pea, lacks any detectable repeated sequences and contains only a single set of ribosomal RNA genes. However, in contrast to broad bean and pea, alfalfa chloroplast DNA is unrearranged (except for the deletion of one segment of the inverted repeat) relative to chloroplast DNA from mung bean. Together with other findings reported here, these results allow us to determine which of the four possible inverted repeat configurations was deleted in the alfalfa-pea-broad bean lineage, and to show how the present-day broad bean genome may have been derived from an alfalfa-like ancestral genome by two major sequence inversions. The 147 kb lupine chloroplast genome contains a 22 kb inverted repeat and has essentially complete colinearity with the mung bean genome. In contrast, the 130 kb wisteria genome has deleted one half of the inverted repeat and appears colinear with the alfalfa genome. The 140 kb subclover genome has been extensively rearranged and contains a family of at least five dispersed repetitive sequence elements, each several hundred by in size; this is the first report of dispersed repeats of this size in a land plant chloroplast genome. We conclude that the inverted repeat has been lost only once among legumes and that this loss occurred prior to all the other rearrangements observed in subclover, broad bean and pea. Of those lineages that lack the inverted repeat, some are stable and unrearranged, other have undergone a moderate amount of rearrangement, while still others have sustained a complex series of rearrangement either with or without major sequence duplications and transpositions.
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