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  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (2)
  • Biochemistry  (1)
  • Life sciences
  • 1985-1989  (3)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Some 30 cytokine amino acid sequences (mainly interleukins, colony stimulating factors and tumor necrosis factors) have been examined for evidence of secondary structure as well as longer-range interactions of a type likely to lead to stable α-helical bundles. Most, though not all, of the cytokines examined have a high predicted α-helical content (40-60%) and quasi-repeating heptads containing i/i+3 apolar periodicities. This major subset of the cytokines is predicted to be characterized by molecules in which 4-α-helical bundles with an average length of 25Å are the most marked conformational features. Based on these conclusions, we suggest structures for huG-CSF, huGM-CSF and muIL-5 in which defined loop segments at the ends of helical bundles are the most likely sites for binding and recognition by specific cell receptors. As such, they provide a means for testing or refining the three working models we have defined, using currently available methods of site-directed substitution and deletion mutagenesis, as well as synthetic peptides corresponding to the proposed loop sequences and the use of monoclonal antibodies of defined epitopic specificity. The structure arrived at for huGM-CSF is consistent with the limited data currently available concerning the residues which are important for binding and activity.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Ab initio calculations employing a standard double-zeta basis set augmented with various polarization functions have been used to investigate the lowest energy region of the ground-state potential energy surface of the formamide molecule. Hartree-Fock calculations with only d polarization functions on the nonhydrogen atoms located two stable minima, that with geometry distorted from planarity having slightly lower energy; only one stable minimum with planar structure is found when p polarization functions on the hydrogens are included. In contrast optimizations, which account approximately for the correlation energy using second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory consistently favor a single slightly nonplanar minimum energy geometry.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: coiled-coli ; alpha-helix ; antiphagocytic ; heptad ; antigenic variation ; sequence repeats ; cell wall protein ; intermediate filaments ; myosin ; tropomyosin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: M protein is considered a virulence determinant on the streptococcal cell wall by virtue of its ability to allow the organism to resist attack by human neutrophils. The complete DNA sequence of the M6 gene from streptococcal strain D471 has allowed, for the first time, the study of the structural characteristics of the amino acid sequence of an entire M protein molecule. Predictive secondary structural analysis revealed that the majority of this fibrillar molecule exhibits strong alpha-helical potential and that, except for the ends, nonpolar residues in the central region of the molecule exhibit the 7-residue periodicity typical for coiled-coil proteins. Differences in this heptad pattern of nonpolar residues allow this central rod region to be divided into three subdomains which correlate essentially with the repeat regions A, B, and C/D in the M6 protein sequence. Alignment of the N-terminal half of the M6 sequence with PepM5, the N-terminal half of the M5 protein, revealed that 42% of the amino acids were identical. The majority of the identities were “core” nonpolar residues of the heptad periodicity which are necessary for the maintenance of the coiled coil. Thus, conservation of structure in a sequence-variable region of these molecules may be biologically significant. Results suggest that serologically different M proteins may be built according to a basic scheme: an extended central coiled-coil rod domain (which may vary in size among strains) flanked by functional end domains.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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