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  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (40)
  • Humans
  • Animals
  • 1980-1984  (41)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Data reported here and previously indicate that when dextrin is hydrolyzed in the presence of immobilized glucoamylase, use of a larger average molecular weight substrate leads to lower overall rates of hydrolysis, while the maltose concentration during the bulk of the reaction and the maximum glucose concentration are lower than when the soluble form of the enzyme is employed under the same conditions. Computer simulation of the system demonstrated that all three observations were caused by pore diffusion limitation: the first by slow diffusion of substrate, the second by slow diffusion of intermediates, and the third by slow diffusion of glucose. Follow-up experiments with glucoamylase immobilized to particles of different sizes confirmed this finding, as results with the smallest beads were identical to those with soluble glucoamylase.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Long latency reflexes ; Electromyographic activity ; Wrist muscles ; Humans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Reflex EMG responses to angular displacements of the wrist joint were recorded from 12 normal human volunteers. A mechanical stop was used to suddenly arrest displacements at varying times following the onset of the stimulus. With unrestricted movement of the handle, the EMG response consisted of an early component (M1) with a latency of 30–35 ms and a long-latency component (M2–3) beginning 55–65 ms after the onset of the displacement. When the displacements were arrested prior to a critical time occurring between 40 and 50 ms after the onset (mean of 44 ms), the M2–3 component of the response was not present. Increasing the duration of the displacement beyond this time resulted in a rapid increase in the size of M2–3. Facilitation provided by volitional intent to oppose the perturbation was not sufficient to generate an M2–3 response to either a brief, low velocity displacement produced by the torque motor or to a phasic, high velocity stretch produced by a tendon tap. The timing relationships between the onset latency of M2 and the minimum duration of displacement required to generate an M2–3 response are not easily reconciled with the notion that the segmentation of the EMG responses into components is mediated by repeated activation of the same central reflex pathway by phasic afferent bursts. Two mechanisms that could account for these results are either inhibition in response to the sudden stop of phasically-active “linking” interneurons which are part of the long latency pathway, or the loss of an essential convergent facilitatory input which serves to monitor the continuation of the movement.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Many changes that occur in a cell during the cell cycle can be demonstrated in synchronous cultures and can reveal dimensions of cell metabolism not attainable by the study of balanced growth of asynchronous populations in batch cultures or the steady state in chemostat cultures. The release of 14CO2 from specifically labeled glucose by phased (continuously synchronized) cultures follows a characteristic pattern (profile) that depends upon the stage in the cell cycle and the period of labeling used. Successive profiles throughout a cycle showed differences that were altered under different nutrient-limiting growth conditions. Profiles obtained with glucose-1-14C, glucose-2-14C, glucose-3,4-14C, and glucose-6-14C and phased cells of Candida utilis under N-, P-, and C-limited growth demonstrated the variable character of the metabolic activity that occurred in the cells while contour changes within the profiles across the cycle indicated possible correlations with activities of the hexose monophosphate, Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways during the cell cycle. The basis of these changes and their use as elementary parameters for study of problems of physiological changes in vivo are considered.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 22 (1980), S. 1725-1734 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A unique silver-free and ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive photographic process using enzymes has been developed. It utilizes α-chymotrypsin acylated to a light-sensitive stereoisomeric ester as the basic photographic material. When UV light is exposed to the file, the signal is registered by the appearance of melanin pigment through the chymotrypsin-mediated activation of pre-tyrosinase.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 23 (1981), S. 361-371 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An enzyme which catalyzes the synthesis of cephalexin fromD-α phenylglycinemethylester (PGM) and 7-amino-3-desacetoxy-cephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA) was prepared from Xanthomonas citri (IFO 3835) and partially purified 30-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose, and Sepharose-4B column chromatography. The Km values for 7-ADCA, PGM, and cephalexin were determined as 11.1, 2.1, and 1.61 mM, respectively. The enzymatic cephalexin synthesis follows the reversible bi-uni reaction kinetics. The equilibrium constant is influenced by the initial mole ratios of 7-ADCA and PGM. The cephalexin hydrolysis is catalyzed by the same cephalexin synthesizing enzyme, but methanol does not participate in the hydrolytic reaction. The amount of enzyme in the reaction mixture affects the initial rate but does not influence the equilibrium product concentration. This cephalexin-synthesizing enzyme was immobilized onto several adsorbents. Among these, Kaolin and bentonite showed a higher retention of enzyme activity and stability for reuse. The immobilized-enzyme reaction kinetics were investigated and compared with those of the soluble enzyme. A rate expression for the enzymatic synthesis of cephalexin was derived. The results of computer simulation showed good agreement with the experimental results.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 23 (1981), S. 419-424 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A simple method is presented that establishes intrinsic rate parameters when slow pore diffusion of substrate limits immobilized enzyme reactions that obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Aris-Bischoff modulus is employed. Data at high substrate concentrations, where the enzyme would be saturated in the absence of diffusion limitation, and at low substrate concentrations, where effectiveness factors are inversely proportional to reaction modulus, are used to determine maximum rate and Michaelis constant, respectively. Because Michaelis-Menten and Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics are formally identical, this method may be used to estimate intrinsic rate parameters of many heterogeneous catalysts. The technique is demonstrated using experimental data from the hydrolysis of maize dextrin with diffusion-limited immobilized glucoamylase. This system yields a Michaelis constant of 0.14%, compared to 0.11% for soluble glucoamylase and 0.24% for immobilized glucoamylase free of diffusional effects.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The changes in the cellulose structure by compression milling were studied and expressed in terms of crystallinity, accessibility, specific surface area, and degree of polymerization. The kinetic parameters, maximum reaction rate, and Michaelis constant were determined experimentally. Based on the experimental results a two-phase model, which is based on the degradation of cellulose by simultaneous actions of the cellulase complex on the crystalline and amorphous phases, is proposed. The relationships between cellulose accessibility and the kinetic parameters were compared with those predicted by the model. A good agreement was found, although the two-phase hypothesis is a simplification of the true state of order in cellulose.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 24 (1982), S. 2109-2113 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the cellulase-cellulose reaction system, the adsorption of cellulase on the solid cellulose substrate was found to be one of the important parameters that govern the enzymatic hydrolysis rate of cellulose. The adsorption of cellulase usually parallels the rate of hydrolysis of cellulose. The affinity for cellulase varies depending on the structural properties of cellulose. Adsorption parameters such as the half-saturation constant, the maximum adsorption constant, and the distribution coefficient for both the cellulase and cellulsoe have been experimentally determined for several substrates. These adsorption parameters vary with the source of cellulose and the pretreatment methods and are correlated with the crystallinity and the specific surface area of cellulose substrates. The changing pattern of adsorption profile of cellulase during the hydrolysis reaction has also been elucidated. For practical utilization of cellulosic materials, the cellulose structural properties and their effects on cellulase adsorption, and the rate of hydrolysis must be taken into consideration.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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