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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Motor unit types ; Twitch and tetanic tensions ; Potentiation ; Peroneus tertius muscle ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Motor units of the cat peroneus tertius muscle were systematically analyzed using the criteria established by Burke et al. (1973). On the basis of their speed of contraction and resistance to fatigue, 121 (97%) of 125 motor units examined in ten adult cats could be classified as belonging to one of four types: fast-fatiguable (FF), fast-resistant (FR), fast-intermediate (FI), and slow-resistant (S). Peroneus tertius was found to contain 30% FF motor units, 9% FI units, 39% FR units, and 22% S units. Contraction times of fast motor units (FF, FR, and FI) ranged from 15 to 27 ms and those of S units from 26 to 42 ms. The mean tetanic tensions were 37 g for FF units, 29 g for FI units, 7.5 g for FR units, and 1.1 g for S units. Fast motor units displayed considerable post-tetanic potentiation of twitch tension. Under similar conditions of stimulation, FF units appeared able to potentiate more and faster than FR units.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Muscle spindle ; Fusimotor ; Afferent ; Intrafusal contraction ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Responses of secondary endings of muscle spindles of the peroneus tertius muscle of the anaesthetized cat have been recorded during repetitive stimulation of functionally single fusimotor fibres that produced slowing of the discharge. In a sample of 125 pairs of single fusimotor fibres and secondary spindle afferents 5 examples of slowing were seen. The amount of slowing became less at longer muscle lengths. Conditioning the spindle by stimulating the muscle nerve at fusimotor strength, at a length 2.5 mm longer than the test length, and then returning to the test length 3 seconds later led to a greater degree of slowing of the discharge than after conditioning stimulation at the test length. With one exception, responses to muscle stretch were reduced during stimulation of a fusimotor fibre that produced slowing. On two occasions stimulating a fusimotor fibre that produced slowing of the response of one secondary ending, led to excitation of two other endings. Two possible explanations for the generation of slowing responses have been considered. The first is that the slowing is the result of contraction of the region of intrafusal fibre directly underlying the secondary sensory ending. The second, which we favour since it accounts for the facts more adequately, is that slowing is the result of shortening of the region of nuclear chain fibres on which the sensory ending lies, produced by movement in an adjacent nuclear bag fibre.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The irradiation with visible light of a photosensitizer dye like methylene blue was used to regenerate by electron transfer the oxidized form of a pyridine nucleotide coenzyme (NAD+). The process has been studied on a common enzymatic reaction: ethanol oxidation by alcohol-NAD+ oxidoreductase immobilized on polyacrylamide gel or porous glass balls. In the experimental conditions used, the initial NAD+ recycling rates were 2.33 × 104 cycles/h (polyacrylamide) and 3 × 104 cycles/h (glass balls). A total number of 49.5 × 104 cycles was obtained for 13 runs of 2 h. The enzyme immobilization strongly increased its stability: after 28 days at 20°C, the residual activity was 25% of the initial value.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: By investigating the effects of four operating variables - volume (V), Ultrafiltration flux (J), enzyme concentration (E), and substrate concentration (S) - on capacity (K) and conversion rate (ε) of a hollow fiber CSTR, the performances of the CSTR and the kinetic constants of the reaction were determined. A model which takes into account the course of fractional conversion (X) according to the modified space-time parameter, τ (integrated form of V, J, S, and E), was devised by employing the relationship to integrate the equation for the reaction rate of the CSTR and the expression of the modified space time. Correlation of this model and the experimentally obtained results demonstrates that the characteristics for an ultrafiltration membrane reactor for enzymatic hydrolysis by alcalase of plasma proteins are close to those of an ideal CSTR. Optimal scaling up, however, remains dependent on the compromise which may be obtained between capacity and the conversion rate.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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