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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (28)
  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (26)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Conotoxin ; analogues ; disulphide deletions ; calcium channel ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The 27-residue polypeptide ω-conotoxin GVIA (ω-CgTx), from the venom of the cone shell Conus geographus, blocks N-type neuronal calcium channels. It contains three disulphide bridges. We reporte here the synthesis and biological characterization of a seires of analogues in which one disulphide has been replaced by substitution of appropriate Cys residues with Ser, viz. [Ser1,16]-ω-CgTx, [Ser8,19]-ω-CgTx, [Ser15,26]-ω-CgTx, [Ser16]-ω-CgTx8-27 and [Ser15]-ω-CgTx1-19. All syntheses were conducted manually using either Boc or Fmoc methodology. Deprotected peptides were oxidized to their bridged forms using either aerial oxidation or aqueous dimethyl sulphoxide. Peptides were purified using RP-HPLC, and their purity and identity were checked by RP-HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Inhibition of neuronal N-type calcium channels was assessed as the inhibition of the twitch responses of rat vas deferens stimualted with single electrical pulses at 20 second intervals. None of these analogues was biologically active, suggesting that the disulphides play an important role in maintaining biological activity.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cupula of the supraorbital neuromast in the lateral line canal of the clown knifefish contains vertical columns. In the central region of the cupula overlying the macula, these columns are densely packed, are relatively constant in size, and run from the base of the cupula to the surface of the cupula which is exposed to canal fluid. There are two types of columns, dark and light, which form elliptical compartments in planes of section that cut across the columns; the cupula therefore has the appearance of mosaic tile in such sections. The dark compartments contain tubules that extend from the base of the cupula at the junction with the macula to the top of the cupula. Each tubule is associated with the kinocilium of a single hair cell. The lateral parts of the cupula, not overlying the macula, also contain compartments, but these compartments differ in size and structure from those in the central region. In addition to the compartments, the central region of the cupula also contains spherical aggregates of droplets. These small aggregates, termed mora, are found principally in a layer within the central region of the cupula, but are also found outside this layer. Because of their light-reflecting properties, the mora can be used for noninvasive optical measurements in vivo of the motion of the cupula.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: forskolin ; cholera toxin ; pertussis toxin ; interleukin-2 ; T lymphocyte ; G protein ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The Nb2 T lymphoma is unique in that these lymphocytes proliferate in response to prolactin as well as in response to interleukin-2. In this study, we have examined the responsiveness of the adenylate cyclase system in Nb2 cells and the role of this signaling system in regulating proliferation and protein phosphorylation. An analog of cAMP inhibited prolactin-stimulated proliferation and blocked a prolactin-induced decrease in protein phosphorylation. Forskolin, a potent activator of adenylate cyclase in T lymphocytes, did not elevate cAMP levels in Nb2 cells and was not an effective inhibitor of prolactin-induced proliferation. In fact, one preparation of forskolin stimulated proliferation of quiescent Nb2 cells. Like forskolin, prostaglandin E2 did not stimulate cAMP production in Nb2 cells even though, it increased cAMP in a preparation of rat peripheral blood lymphocytes. Cholera toxin appeared to ADP-ribosylate a stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein in Nb2 cells, but the toxin did not increase intracellular levels of cAMP nor was it a potent anti-mitogenic agent. Pertussis toxin, an agent that can increase cAMP production through suppression of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein, exerted only minor anti-proliferative actions on prolactin-stimulated Nb2 cells. These data suggest that cAMP inhibits Nb2 cell proliferation and prolactin-induced changes in protein phosphorylation but that the adenylate cyclase system in our clone of Nb2 cells responds poorly to agents that normally increase cAMP.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: 2D-PAGE ; human tumors ; HEp-3 ; subcellular fractionation ; negative regulators ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Human epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-3) cells are highly tumorigenic and metastatic in vivo, but their metastatic phenotype is progressively and uniquely lost upon serial passage in vitro. The nonmetastatic phenotype is fully reversible to the highly metastatic state when HEp-3 cells are passaged back in vivo.To study the complex process of metastasis and its possible negative regulation by specific gene products, the expression of specific proteins between the highly metastatic and nonmetastatic HEp-3 cells was investigated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and subsequent computer assisted analyses. Concomitant with the in vitro loss of metastatic potential of HEp-3 cells is the elevated expression of a subset of low abundance proteins detectable in 2D-PAGE but not apparent in high resolution one dimensional PAGE. When the HEp-3 cells revert to the metastatic state, the expression of these proteins declines. The increased abundance of four distinct proteins directly correlates with the loss of the metastatic phenotype: two of the four proteins are associated with isolated cellular membranes (36kD, pl 5.7; 22kDa, pl 5.6), on protein fractionates with the cytoplasm (65kD, pl 6.2), and one protein is enriched in the nuclei fraction (32kD, pl 5.8). These data indicate that computer-assisted analysis of highly sensitive, large-format, 2D-PAGE can be used to identify specific proteins in subcellular compartments that are candidates for negative regulators of the metastatic process. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A series-type enzyme deactivation model is utilized to theoretically analyze and to quantify the effect of chemical modifier concentration on the eventual level of enzyme activity stabilization, α2. An increase in the concentration of phosphate ion and NADP increases α2 for the enzymes studied. One example of each enzyme deactivation is given wherein the introduction of chemical modifiers changes the deactivation mechanism from a single-step to a series-type mechanism, and from a series-type to a single-step mechanism. Simple empirical equations are proposed to quantify the effect of chemical modifier concentration on α2.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A series-type enzyme deactivation model is used to model and to quantitate some more complex enzyme deacti-vations. The influence of temperature, pH, immobilization, chemical modifier (inhibitor or protector), substrate, and metal ion on the inactivation kinetics and on the parameter values is examined. In some cases the influence of two parameters on enzyme inactivations is presented. This provides further physical insights into enzyme inactivation and stabilization processes.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 30 (1987), S. 717-723 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A two-parameter deactivation model is proposed to describe the kinetics of activity stabilization for some enzymes. The single-step unimolecular mechanism exhibits non-first-order deactivation kinetics since the final enzyme state, E1 is not completely inactivated. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by applying it to the inactivation of different enzymes. The influence of the concentration of active ester, ionic strength, and pH on the model parameters is examined during the inactivation of electric eel acetylcholinesterase.25 In general, inactivators would decrease the level of activity stabilization, α1, and increase the first-order inactivation rate constant, k1. The effect of protecting agents would be to increase α1 and to decrease k1.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 69 (1941), S. 481-498 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 184 (1985), S. 23-31 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Lifelike models of the oscillating legs treated as three-segment systems show the course of kinetic and potential energy over the locomotor cycle for a cheetah, pronghorn, jackrabbit, and elephant running at speeds approaching their maxima. The models can be adjusted to eliminate differences among the animals in time intervals, mass or length of limb, and joint angles. This facilitates analysis of the influence on total energy of each of these variables and of the distribution of mass among leg segments. Fast-cycling legs of the carnivore type have significantly more energy than those of the hoofed type. This may contribute to the lesser endurance that is usual for carnivores that hunt using a high-speed dash.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: genome ; calmodulin ; smooth muscle ; immunohistochemistry ; heart ; development ; protein kinase ; tissue selective ; calcium ; signal transduction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We report that the genetic locus that encodes vertebrate smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and kinase-related protein (KRP) has a complex arrangement and a complex pattern of expression. Three proteins are encoded by 31 exons that have only one variation, that of the first exon of KRP, and the genomic locus spans approximately 100 kb of DNA. The three proteins can differ in their relative abundance and localization among tissues and with development. MLCK is a calmodulin (CaM) regulated protein kinase that phosphorylates the light chain of myosin II. The chicken has two MLCK isoforms encoded by the MLCK/KRP locus. KRP does not bind CaM and is not a protein kinase. However, KRP binds to and regulates the structure of myosin II. Thus, KRP and MLCK have the same subcellular target, the myosin II molecular motor system. We examined the tissue and cellular localization of KRP and MLCK in the chicken embryo and in adult chicken tissues. We report on the selective localization of KRP and MLCK among and within tissues and on a differential distribution of the proteins between embryonic and adult tissues. The results fill a void in our knowledge about the organization of the MLCK/KRP genetic locus, which appears to be a late evolving regulatory paradigm, and suggest an independent and complex regulation of expression of the gene products from the MLCK/KRP genetic locus that may reflect a basic principle found in other eukaryotic gene clusters that encode functionally linked proteins. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:402-413, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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