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  • 1
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Gene Expression ; Proteins ; Life sciences ; Protein Science ; Gene Expression ; Biological and Medical Physics, Biophysics ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Fibrous Protein Structures: Hierarchy, History and Heroes -- Coiled-coil design: updated and upgraded -- Functional and Structural Roles of Coiled Coils -- The Structure and Topology of α-Helical Coiled Coils -- Structural Transition of Trichocyte Keratin Intermediate Filaments During Development in the Hair Follicle -- Crystallographic studies of intermediate filament proteins -- Lessons from animal models of cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins -- Filamentous Structure of Hard β-Keratins in the Epidermal Appendages of Birds and Reptiles -- Tropomyosin Structure, Function, and Interactions: A Dynamic Regulator -- Titin and Nebulin in Thick and Thin Filament Length Regulation -- Myosin and Actin Filaments in Muscle: Structures and Interactions -- Dystrophin and spectrin, two highly dissimilar sisters of the same family -- Fibrin Formation, Structure and Properties -- Fibrillar collagens -- Recombinant structural proteins and their use in future materials -- Properties of engineered and fabricated silks -- Biomaterials Made from Coiled Coil Peptides -- Bioengineered Collagens
    Abstract: This book provides the readers with an up-to-date review of the design, structure and function of a representative selection of fibrous proteins in both health and disease. The importance of the α-helical coiled coil, a conformational motif based on the heptad repeat in the amino acid sequence of all α-fibrous proteins (and parts of some globular proteins) is underlined by three Chapters devoted to its design, structure, function and topology. Specific proteins covered in the text and which depend on the coiled coil for their structure and function, include the intermediate filament proteins, tropomyosin, myosin, paramyosin, fibrin and members of the spectrin superfamily. Also described are fibrous proteins based on the β-pleated sheet and collagen conformations. Recombinant structural proteins, especially of silk and collagen, are discussed in the context of developing new biomaterials with varied applications. Established researchers and postgraduate students in the fields of protein chemistry, biochemistry and structural biophysics will find Fibrous Proteins: Structures and Mechanisms to be an invaluable collection of topical reviews that describe the basic advances made in the field of fibrous proteins over the past decade. This book, written by recognized authorities in the field, provides a clear account of the current status of fibrous protein research and, in addition, establishes the basis for deciding the most appropriate directions for future activity, including the applications of protein engineering and the commercial exploitation of new biomaterials
    Pages: VIII, 629 p. 154 illus., 123 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319496740
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: coiled-coils ; keratin ; intermediate filament proteins ; link segments ; heptad phasing ; computer modeling ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Structural discontinuities have previously been identified in four regions of the coiled-coil rod domain structure present in intermediate filament (IF) protein molecules. These include a point at which a phase shift occurs in the heptad periodicity characteristic of the sequence of polar and apolar residues in α-helical coiled-coils, and three links that lack a heptad substructure. We have studied these regions by computer-based molecular modeling and comparative sequence analysis and conclude that the phasing discontinuity can be accommodated without significant distortion of the overall double-helical chain conformation; the L2 link has a similar conformation in all different types of IF molecules, a favorable conformation being one in which the two strands wrap tightly around each other; the L12 links vary in length between different IF types but contain important sequence similarities suggestive of a partial β structure; the L1 links show larger variations in length, a lower degree of similarity, and probably diverse structures. Variations in the overall charges of the different links suggest that ionic interactions may playa significant role in filament assembly. The results also have general significance for other α-fibrous proteins in which either the characteristic heptad phasing undergoes a discontinuity or where a short non-coiled-coil sequence occurs within a coiled-coil rod domain structure. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: α-fibrous proteins ; supercoiling ; structure prediction ; hemagglutinin ; mannose-binding protein ; protein engineering ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The discontinuities found in heptad repeats of α-helical coiled-coil proteins have been characterized. A survey of 40 α-fibrous proteins reveals that only two classes of heptad breaks are prevalent: the stutter, corresponding to a deletion of three residues, and the newly identified “stammer,” corresponding to a deletion of four residues. This restriction on the variety of insertions/deletions encountered gives support to a unifying structural model, where different degrees of supercoiling accommodate the observed breaks. Stutters in the hemagglutinin coiled-coil region have previously been shown to produce an underwinding of the supercoil, and we show here how, in other cases, stammers would lead to overwinding. An analysis of main-chain structure also indicates that the mannose-binding protein, as well as hemagglutinin, contains an underwound coiled-coil region. In contrast to knobs-into-holes packing, these models give rise to non-close-packed cores at the sites of the heptad phase shifts. We suggest that such non-close-packed cores may function to terminate certain coiled-coil regions, and may also account for the flexibility observed in such long α-fibrous molecules as myosin. The local underwinding or overwinding caused by these specific breaks in the heptad repeat has a global effect on the structure and can modify both the assembly of the protein and its interaction properties. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: α-keratin ; intermediate filaments ; epidermal keratin ; vimentin ; keratinopathies ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In intermediate filaments (IF) both epidermal keratin and vimentin molecules have been shown to have an eight residue head to-tail overlap between the rod domains of similarly directed molecules. In the case of the epidermal keratins this region has also been shown to have particular structural/functional significance since it represents a hot-spot for mutations in the four keratinopathies characterized to date. While there is good evidence that this head-to-tail overlap is present in IF containing Type III, IV, and V chains, as well as in the epidermal keratin IF (Ib/IIb), there are no data currently available for the hard α-keratin IF (Ia/IIa). Using a variety of data derived from X-ray diffraction and crosslinking studies, as well as theoretical modeling, it is now possible to demonstrate that the overlap region is not a feature of hard α-keratin IF. Indeed, it is shown that there is a nine residue gap between consecutive parallel molecules in the IF. An explanation for this observation is presented in terms of compensating disulfide bonds that occur both within the IF, and between the IF and the matrix in which the IF are embedded. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: α-fibrous proteins ; 4-α-helix bundle ; membrane-spanning proteins ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Some 30 cytokine amino acid sequences (mainly interleukins, colony stimulating factors and tumor necrosis factors) have been examined for evidence of secondary structure as well as longer-range interactions of a type likely to lead to stable α-helical bundles. Most, though not all, of the cytokines examined have a high predicted α-helical content (40-60%) and quasi-repeating heptads containing i/i+3 apolar periodicities. This major subset of the cytokines is predicted to be characterized by molecules in which 4-α-helical bundles with an average length of 25Å are the most marked conformational features. Based on these conclusions, we suggest structures for huG-CSF, huGM-CSF and muIL-5 in which defined loop segments at the ends of helical bundles are the most likely sites for binding and recognition by specific cell receptors. As such, they provide a means for testing or refining the three working models we have defined, using currently available methods of site-directed substitution and deletion mutagenesis, as well as synthetic peptides corresponding to the proposed loop sequences and the use of monoclonal antibodies of defined epitopic specificity. The structure arrived at for huGM-CSF is consistent with the limited data currently available concerning the residues which are important for binding and activity.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chicester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Molecular Recognition 4 (1991), S. 63-75 
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The amino acid sequences of human and murine haemopoietins have been analysed using algorithms predictive for secondary structure. The results for 19 of these proteins (human and murine Interleukins 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and granulocyte, macrophage and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factors as well as human erythropoietin) suggest that they each contain a 4-α-helical bundle, ca 25 Å long, as a common conformational feature. The most important predictive indicator was considered to be occurrence of quasi-repeating sequences of seven amino acids of the form (a-b-c-d-e-f-g)n with a polar side chains (usually leucine) lying alternately three and four residues apart in the a and d positions. As with other proteins of known secondary structure this periodicity favors the formation of α-helical elements, each with an a polar external strip, which interdigitate closely with one another when tested appropriately. Molecular models based on these putative 4-α-helical bundles are presented - with special references to human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor. The extent to which such models are consistent with experiments designed to delineate receptor binding sites is discussed.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Ab initio calculations employing a standard double-zeta basis set augmented with various polarization functions have been used to investigate the lowest energy region of the ground-state potential energy surface of the formamide molecule. Hartree-Fock calculations with only d polarization functions on the nonhydrogen atoms located two stable minima, that with geometry distorted from planarity having slightly lower energy; only one stable minimum with planar structure is found when p polarization functions on the hydrogens are included. In contrast optimizations, which account approximately for the correlation energy using second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory consistently favor a single slightly nonplanar minimum energy geometry.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: coiled-coli ; alpha-helix ; antiphagocytic ; heptad ; antigenic variation ; sequence repeats ; cell wall protein ; intermediate filaments ; myosin ; tropomyosin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: M protein is considered a virulence determinant on the streptococcal cell wall by virtue of its ability to allow the organism to resist attack by human neutrophils. The complete DNA sequence of the M6 gene from streptococcal strain D471 has allowed, for the first time, the study of the structural characteristics of the amino acid sequence of an entire M protein molecule. Predictive secondary structural analysis revealed that the majority of this fibrillar molecule exhibits strong alpha-helical potential and that, except for the ends, nonpolar residues in the central region of the molecule exhibit the 7-residue periodicity typical for coiled-coil proteins. Differences in this heptad pattern of nonpolar residues allow this central rod region to be divided into three subdomains which correlate essentially with the repeat regions A, B, and C/D in the M6 protein sequence. Alignment of the N-terminal half of the M6 sequence with PepM5, the N-terminal half of the M5 protein, revealed that 42% of the amino acids were identical. The majority of the identities were “core” nonpolar residues of the heptad periodicity which are necessary for the maintenance of the coiled coil. Thus, conservation of structure in a sequence-variable region of these molecules may be biologically significant. Results suggest that serologically different M proteins may be built according to a basic scheme: an extended central coiled-coil rod domain (which may vary in size among strains) flanked by functional end domains.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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