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  • Articles  (20)
  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (15)
  • Conducting polymers  (5)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: membrane proteins ; channels ; circular dichroism spectroscopy ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The secondary structure of alamethicin, a membrane channel-forming polypeptide, has been examined by circular dichroism spectroscopy to determine the relationship of its conformation in organic solution to its conformation in a membrane-bound state. The spectrum of alamethicin in small unilamellar dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles is significantly different from its spectrum in 10% methanol/acetonitrile, the solvent from which it was crystallized (Fox and Richards: Nature 300:325-330, 1982), as well as its spectrum in methanol, the solvent in which NMR studies have been done (Banerjee and Chan: Biochemistry 22:3709-3713, 1983). This suggests that structural models based on studies of the molecule in organic solvents may not be entirely appropriate for the membrane-bound state. To distinguish between different models for channel formation and insertion, two different methods were used to associate the alamethicin with vesicles; in addition, the effect of oligomerization on the conformation of the membrane-bound state was investigated. These studies are consistent with a modified insertion model in which alamethicin monomers, dimers, or trimers associate with the bilayer and then spontaneously oligomerize to form a prechannel with a higher helix content. This aggregate could then “open” upon application of an appropriate gating transmembrane potential.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Litoria genimaculata ; skin glands ; glandular secretions ; peptides ; antibiotic activity ; maculatins 1 ; caerin 1.1 ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Six peptides have been isolated and characterized from the dorsal glands of the tree frog Litoria genimaculata. One of these is the known hypotensive peptide caerulein; the others have been named maculatins. The amino acid sequences of the maculatin peptides have been determined using a combination of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and automated Edman sequencing. Four of the maculatin peptides show antibiotic activity, with maculatin 1.1 [GLFGVLAKVAAHVVPAIAEHF(NH2;)] showing the most pronounced activity, particularly against Gram-positive organisms. Maculatin 1.1 resembles the known caerin 1 antibiotic peptides, except that four of the central amino acid residues (of the caerin 1 system) are missing in maculatin 1.1. A comparison of the antibiotic activity of maculatin 1.1 with those of caerin 1.1 is reported. ©1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 12 (1970), S. 321-331 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Through the use of pilot plant equipment, transaldolase types I, II, and III (from Candida utilis) have been separated and purified. The procedure includes a time sensitive solvent fractionation below 0°C, ion exchange chromatography, and crystalization. The enzyme yield represents a 41% recovery of crystalline type III and partially purified types I and II.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We have demonstrated that a simple electrochemical cell can serve as a detector of NADH concentration in a flow system thereby providing an assay technique for NADH dependent enzymes. When this is applied to NADH produced by enzymatic reaction, then a reproducible measure of enzyme activity is obtained. This method of enzyme activity assay is applicable to a number of oxidoreductase enzymes which employ NAD+ or NADP+ as coenzymes to achieve substrate modification. The presence of electroactive species in samples of human serum has proved a serious problem in the electrochemical analysis of serum activity. These species produce a large background anode current at the anode voltage appropriate for NADH oxidation. The presence of this high current limits the usefulness of amplification of the current output to detect small changes in NADH concentration.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 20 (1978), S. 403-420 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Graphites of different manufacture and origin exert positive but different accelerations on the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD+ in aqueous solution; different proportions of the oxidized form of NAD retain enzymatic activity depending on the nature of the graphite. Oxidative pretreatment of the graphite surfaces increases the rates of NADH oxidation, but subsequent silanization of the surfaces to attach alkylamine groups causes the rates to decrease. The experimental results suggest the presence of at least two types of sites on graphite surfaces: One very reactive site which produces a high percentage of an enzymatically inactive reaction product of NADH and is itself deactivated during the course of reaction, and another type of site which promotes the oxidation of NADH to enzymatically active NAD+ in high yields.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Aspen (Populus tremuloides) and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) organosolv pulps produced in a wide range of solvent composition (between 30 and 70% by volume of methanol) and catalysts (H2SO4 and H3PO4) such that the cooking liquor pH ≤ 3 are easily digested by enzymes. The total yields of hydrolysis residues (pulps) are in the 40-60% range; the acid-catalyzed delignification followed by enzyme hydrolysis can generate 70-88% of the original six-carbon sugars contained in the wood. Glucomannan and arablnogalactan are dissolved into the pulping liquor in the pH range of 2-4.5. Lower pH (≤3) leads to additional solubilization of six-carbon sugars. These sugars may be fermented directly. From the insoluble hydrolysis residues, 36-41% conversions of wood into fermentable sugars were obtained after enzyme hydrolysis; the starting feedstocks contain 50.8 and 46.6% hexosans, respectively, for aspen and black cotton-wood. The kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose can be formally treated as two simultaneous pseudo-first-order reactions in which fast and slow hydrolyses of cellulose occur. Correlations between the glucan digestibility and the effect of the pretreatment have been made. The higher residual xylan content reduces the amount of the rapidly hydrolyzable glucan fraction and lowers the glucan digestibility. The proposed simple kinetic treatment is very helpful in assessing the effect of the pretreatment on pulp enzyme hydrolyzability.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1040-0397
    Keywords: Microelectrode ; Array electrode ; Conducting polymers ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An individually addressable microelectrode array system has been developed in the course of this work. The performance of this system was investigated using conventional electrochemistry (oxidation/reduction or ferrocene carboxylic acid) to demonstrate that independent potential control and current measurement at each of the array components was possible. The practical utility of this system has been demonstrated using a conducting polymer based microarray detection system subsequent to Ion Chromatography. The detection of simple electroinactive ions (e.g., Cl-, SO42-, K+, NH4+) using the array system was achieved and the response at each of the array components was studied as a function of polymer composition.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1040-0397
    Keywords: Conducting polymers ; Electroinactive species ; Polypyrrole ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Previous workers have demonstrated that conducting electroactive polymers can be used to detect electroinactive species. In this work, the effect of polymer composition, the nature of the eluent, and the electrochemical waveform on the selectivity of this detection process have been investigated.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Electroanalysis 6 (1994), S. 860-864 
    ISSN: 1040-0397
    Keywords: Conducting polymers ; Electroinactive ions ; Microelectrodes ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The detection of electroinactive ions using conducting polymers has been described previously. In this work, we show that the analytical performance of this method is greatly improved using microelectrodes. The use of microelectrodes overcomes the problems associated with the implementation of this detection scheme in low conductivity eluents.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1040-0397
    Keywords: Conducting polymers ; Aluminum ; Polypyrrole ; Microelectrode ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Methods that enable the preparation of cation sensitive polymer-coated microelectrodes have been developed. The analytical utility of these electrodes has been demonstrated with the detection of aluminum in flowing solutions. Detection limits in the low ppb range have been obtained. The response for several potentially interfering cations was evaluated.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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