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  • 1
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Immunomodulators ; lipopeptides ; peptide synthesis ; S-[2,3-dihydroxypropyl]-cysteine ; splenocyte activators ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Various lipopeptides representing the N-terminal part of the cytochrome subunit of the photosynthetic reaction centre from the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas virdis were prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis. These lipopeptides consisted of a S-[2,3-dihydroxypropyl]-cysteinyl (Dhc) residue N-terminally coupled to the nonapeptide FEPPPATTT. Different numbers of palmitoyl (Pam) chains were attached to Dhc via ester and/or amide bonds. The lipopeptide Dhc(Pam)2-FEPPPATTT containing two ester-bonded palmitoyl residues and a free N-chain lipopeptide Pam-Dhc(Pam)-FEPPPATTT containing one amide- and one ester-bonded palmitoyl residues, the two-chain lipopeptide Pam-Dhc(Pam)-FEPPPATTT containing one amide- and one ester-bonded palmitoyl residue, and the N-terminally elongated lipopeptide SLVAG-Dhc(Pam)2-FEPPPATTT were less active. The nonapeptide FEPPPATTT and the decapeptide Dhc-FEPPPATTT were only merginal splenocyte activators, even at concentrations as high as 1 μM. Thus, lipopeptide Dhc(Pam)2-FEPPPATTT constitutes the first potent splenocyte stimulating Dhc-lipopeptide described so far that contains only two fatty acid residues.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Peptide amide ; amide anchors ; intermediates in peptide amide synthesis ; cleavage of peptide amides ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Cleavage and kinetic studies have been carried out using commercially obtained H-Tyr(tBu)-5-(4′-aminomethyl-3′,5′-dimethoxyphenoxy)valeric acid-TentaGelS (H-Tyr(tBu)-4-ADPV-TentaGelS) and H-Tyr (tBu)-4-ADPV-Ala-aminomethyl-resin (H-Tyr(tBu)-4-ADPV-AM-resin) prepared from commercially available resin and loaded with commercially available Fmoc-4-ADPV-OH amide anchor. Cleavage with pure trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) gave the intermediate H-Tyr-4-ADPV-NH2, which was then degraded to H-Tyr-NH2, and cleavage with TFA/dichloromethane (1:9) yielded H-Tyr-4-ADPV-NH2 which could be isolated in preparative amounts. Cleavage reactions with 15N-labelled H-Ala-4-ADPV-[15N]-Gly-AM-resin yielded the intermediate H-Ala-4-ADPV-NH2, which contained no 15N as demonstrated by 1H-NMR. The analysis of the commercial Fmoc-4-ADPV-OH amide anchor showed the presence of Fmoc-4-ADPV-4-ADPV-OH as an impurity in high amounts. This dimeric anchor molecule is the cause of formation of the anchor-linked peptide intermediate obtained during the cleavage from the resin. The particularly high acid-lability of the amide bond between the two ADPV moieties was utilized to synthesize sidechain and C-terminally 4-ADPV protected pentagastrin on a double-anchor resin, and to cleave it using 5% trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane. This method may offer a new way for the synthesis of protected peptide amides with improved solubility to be used in fragment condensation.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Neuropeptide Y ; centrally truncated analogues ; Y1 receptor binding ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Four sets of centrally truncated analogues of neuropeptide Y have been synthesized. In each series the N-terminal part was constant, while the C-terminal segment was systematically varied in length. The C- and N-terminal parts were linked by 6-aminohexanoic acid. The affinity to the Y1 receptor was investigated on human neuroblastoma cells SK-N-MC. Significant differences were found between the series of peptides as well as within each set. Remarkably, the affinity did not solely depend on the length of the segment, and with increasing numbers of residues the IC50 values were not always decreased. With a given N-terminal segment, only one optimal length of the C-terminal segment was found, which suggests that it is not the amino acids themselves but their 3D arrangement and orientation that is important for high receptor affinity.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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