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  • 1
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Conotoxin ; analogues ; disulphide deletions ; calcium channel ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The 27-residue polypeptide ω-conotoxin GVIA (ω-CgTx), from the venom of the cone shell Conus geographus, blocks N-type neuronal calcium channels. It contains three disulphide bridges. We reporte here the synthesis and biological characterization of a seires of analogues in which one disulphide has been replaced by substitution of appropriate Cys residues with Ser, viz. [Ser1,16]-ω-CgTx, [Ser8,19]-ω-CgTx, [Ser15,26]-ω-CgTx, [Ser16]-ω-CgTx8-27 and [Ser15]-ω-CgTx1-19. All syntheses were conducted manually using either Boc or Fmoc methodology. Deprotected peptides were oxidized to their bridged forms using either aerial oxidation or aqueous dimethyl sulphoxide. Peptides were purified using RP-HPLC, and their purity and identity were checked by RP-HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Inhibition of neuronal N-type calcium channels was assessed as the inhibition of the twitch responses of rat vas deferens stimualted with single electrical pulses at 20 second intervals. None of these analogues was biologically active, suggesting that the disulphides play an important role in maintaining biological activity.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A series-type enzyme deactivation model is utilized to theoretically analyze and to quantify the effect of chemical modifier concentration on the eventual level of enzyme activity stabilization, α2. An increase in the concentration of phosphate ion and NADP increases α2 for the enzymes studied. One example of each enzyme deactivation is given wherein the introduction of chemical modifiers changes the deactivation mechanism from a single-step to a series-type mechanism, and from a series-type to a single-step mechanism. Simple empirical equations are proposed to quantify the effect of chemical modifier concentration on α2.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A series-type enzyme deactivation model is used to model and to quantitate some more complex enzyme deacti-vations. The influence of temperature, pH, immobilization, chemical modifier (inhibitor or protector), substrate, and metal ion on the inactivation kinetics and on the parameter values is examined. In some cases the influence of two parameters on enzyme inactivations is presented. This provides further physical insights into enzyme inactivation and stabilization processes.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 30 (1987), S. 717-723 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A two-parameter deactivation model is proposed to describe the kinetics of activity stabilization for some enzymes. The single-step unimolecular mechanism exhibits non-first-order deactivation kinetics since the final enzyme state, E1 is not completely inactivated. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by applying it to the inactivation of different enzymes. The influence of the concentration of active ester, ionic strength, and pH on the model parameters is examined during the inactivation of electric eel acetylcholinesterase.25 In general, inactivators would decrease the level of activity stabilization, α1, and increase the first-order inactivation rate constant, k1. The effect of protecting agents would be to increase α1 and to decrease k1.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 28 (1986), S. 1277-1285 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A general model of enzyme deactivations involving unimolecular processes is introduced. For most mechanisms of this type, the parameters of the general model can be expressed in terms of actual physical parameters. The number of physical parameters that can be determined from the deactivation data cannot exceed the number of independent constants in the general model. When there is an excess of physical parameters, then some parameters must be determined from independent methods of analysis. If this is not possible, then some parameters must be left as lumped parameters or global parameters. The general form of the model can be useful in determining the number of independent, potentially active forms of the enzyme present during deactivation. Some exceptions to the general model are due to higher-order processes such as dissociation, autolysis, and biological contamination.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 28 (1986), S. 256-268 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The influence of chemical modification on the initial specific activity, residual activity, and deactivation kinetics of various enzymes is analyzed using a series mechanism. This straightforward multistate sequential model presented is consistent with the enzyme deactivation data obtained from different fields. The enzymes are placed in five different categories depending on the effect of chemical modification on initial specific activity and residual activity or stability. Wherever possible, structure-function relationships are described for the enzymes in the different categories. The categorization provides one avenue that leads to further physical insights into enzyme deactivation processes and into the enzyme structure itself.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 33 (1989), S. 657-660 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Nitrite ; Nitrate ; Reduction ; Capillary electrophoresis ; Chemiluminescence detection ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Production of nitrates and nitrites is a common step in many methodologies used to measure nitric oxide (NO) and NO-derived products in biological fluids. We report conditions that allow the rapid separation and quantification of nitrite from nitrate ions in biological fluids by capillary ion electrophoresis (CIE). CIE can be used to directly quantify nitrites and nitrates near the millimolar range. To detect lower levels, we have used CIE to monitor the reduction of nitrites and nitrates to NO for chemiluminescence detection. For reduction reactions, we directly compared the ability of three commonly used agents  -  potassium iodide (KI), mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and vanadium chloride (VCl3)  -  to reduce nitrite and nitrate ions to NO. Nitrites/nitrates can be efficiently reduced to NO at 37°C using vanadium chloride (100%) or HgCl2 (80%). However, these CE-derived conditions cannot simply be extrapolated to chemiluminescence measurements. Vanadium (III) yields high background in the photomultiplier that diminishes the sensitivity of chemiluminescence measurement to that outside of physiological ranges. We find that reactions carried out at 37°C in 2 M HCl using HgCl2 is efficient using both techniques.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis ; Serum proteins ; Immunosubtraction ; Immunofixation electrophoresis ; Monoclonal protein ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The capabilities of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for serum protein electrophoresis and immunotyping have been demonstrated. CE-based systems specifically designed for serum protein electrophoresis and immunotyping via immunosubtraction (IS) are now available and are being evaluated for efficiency, specificity and sensitivity by several groups. The use of CE for serum protein electrophoresis and immunotyping (IS) in the clinical laboratory compares well with agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) and immunofixation (IF) for the detection and characterization of monoclonal proteins. In addition to routine use, this technology is useful for a subset of serum samples that are difficult to interpret with conventional technology. In this study, sera abnormalities difficult to detect/interpret by AGE-IF are subdivided into four categories: (i) patients with polyclonal increases in immunoglobulin, (ii) point of application artifacts, (iii) abnormalities in the beta region, and (iv) patients with free light chains. CE is superior to AGE for evaluating samples characterized by the above abnormalities. Sera containing monoclonal proteins within a polyclonal increase are easier to detect by CE as well as being easier to type by IS than by IF. Point-of-application artifacts, periodically observed with AGE, do not exist on CE since the point of detection is remote from the point of application. Enhanced resolution in the beta region allows for increased detection of monoclonal proteins migrating in this region. Some free light chains are undetected by CE as a result of no apparent abnormalities on the CE serum protein profile and, thus, still require IF for detection. CE detects more serum electrophoretic abnormalities than AGE in this clinically important group of patients with Bence Jones proteinemia.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Borate ; Charged chelate ; Corticosteroids ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Separation of endogenous 17- or 18-hydroxylated corticosteroids (of the 21-hydroxylated 4-pregnen series) as charged chelates in capillary electrophoresis with borate as the ligand is demonstrated. Aldosterone, 18-hydroxycorticosterone, 18-hydroxy-11-deoxycorticosterone, cortisone, cortisol, and 11-deoxycortisol are separated and resolved by 400 mM borate buffer at pH 9.0. Separation characteristics of the corticosteroid charged chelates were examined by varying the separation buffer borate concentration, pH, ionic strength, and addition of organic modifiers. The borate ion [B(OH)4]- is identified as the critical buffer component. Corticosteroids chelate borate with proximal hydroxyls composed of either the 17- or 18-hydroxyl in combination with the 21-position hydroxyl. Corticosteroid/borate chelation as indicated by CE results is corroborated with 11B-nuclear magnetic resonance (11B-NMR) sprectra. Chelation is a readily reversible process, with the strength of the resultant chelate, as opposed to the charge-to-mass ratio, predominantly determining analyte mobility in charged chelate - capillary electrophoresis (CC-CE).
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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