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  • 1
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In the absence of vitamin K or in the presence of the vitamin K antagonists, abnormal nonfunctional forms of prothrombin circulate in the blood. A reliable and reproducible technique, derived from traditional crossed affinoimmunoelectrophoresis in presence of calcium lactate, was developed and optimized. The technique is based on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel affinoelectrophoresis, with calcium lactate, of plasma samples, followed by immunoblotting with rabbit anti-human prothrombin serum and detection with an anti-rabbit immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugate. Depending on the plasmas, one or two bands were visualized and quantified by densitometry of the immunoblots. The technique was able detect abnormal des-gamma-carboxylated prothrombins at concentration of 0.1 μg/mL.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Galectins ; Hematopoietic cells ; Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ; Immunoblotting ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Vertebrate soluble β-galactoside-binding lectins form a growing protein family that recently have been named galectins. Seven different galectins have been sequenced and characterized in mammals, and there is compelling evidence for the existence of other members of this lectin family. Three among six galectins are homodimers with (i) an identical subunit of a relative molecular mass of about 14500, and (ii) amino acid sequence homologies giving rise to possible immunochemical cross-reactivities. They are indistinguishable from each other by conventional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), even when followed by immunoblottin. However, their different isoelectric points allow their identification using isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A strategy was developed to identify these galectins in crude extracts from cells and tissues, based on the two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradient (IPG-Dalt) analysis of the specific spots of purified galectins and of the spots of crude extracts, after silver staining. In addition, 2-D immunoblotting using anti-galectin 1 (Gal-1) and anti carbohydrate-binding protein 15 (CBP15) antibodies were performed on brain and leukemia cells (HL60) allowing an identification of related polypeptides. Our results indicate that the use of IPG-Dalt provides a suitable reproducibility and allows the detection of galectins or other galactoside-binding proteins even at basic p/s.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: lectins ; crystal structure ; lectin specificity ; mannose ; glucose ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The structure of the methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside-LOL I complex has been solved by the molecular replacement method using the refined saccharide-free LOL I coordinates as starting model. The methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside-LOL I complex was refined by simulated annealing using the program X-PLOR. The final R-factor value is 0.182 [Fo 〉 1σ(Fo)]. The isostructural methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside-LOL I complex was refined by X-Ray coupled energy minimization using the methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside-LOL I structure as a starting model to an R factor of 0.179 (all data). In both crystal forms, each dimer binds two molecules of sugar in pockets found near the calcium ions. The two saccharide moieties, which are in the C1 chair conformation, establish the same hydrogen bond pattern with the lectin. However, the van der Walls contacts are different between the O2, C2, C6, and O6 atoms of the two molecules and the backbone atoms of residues 208-211. Mannose, due to its axial C2 conformation, encloses the backbone atoms of the protein in a clamplike way. Van der Waals energy calculations suggest that this better complementarity of the mannoside molecule with the lectin could explain its higher affinity for isolectin I.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: α/β-barrels ; protein structure ; loops ; molecular modeling ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A systematic survey of seven parallel α/β barrel protein domains, based on exhaustive structural comparisons, reveals that a sizable proportion of the αβ loops in these proteins - 20 out of a total of 49 - belong to either one of two loop types previously described by Thornton and co-workers. Six loops are of the αβ1 type, with one residue between the α-helix and β-strand, and 13 are of the αβ3 type, with three residues between the helix and the strand. Protein fragments embedding the identified loops, and termed αβ connections since they contain parts of the flanking helix and strand, have been analyzed in detail revealing that each type of connection has a distinct set of conserved structural features. The orientation of the β-strand relative to the helix and loop portions is different owing to a very localized difference in backbone conformation. In αβ1 connections, the chain enters the β-strand via a residue adopting an extended conformation, while in αβ3 it does so via a residue in a near α-helical conformation. Other conserved structural features include distinct patterns of side chain orientation relative to the β-sheet surface and of main chain H-bonds in the loop and the β-strand moieties. Significant differences also occur in packing interactions of conserved hydrophobic residues situated in the last turn of the helix. Yet the α-helix surface of both types of connections adopts similar orientations relative to the barrel sheet surface. Our results suggest furthermore that conserved hydrophobic residues along the sequence of the connections, may be correlated more with specific patterns of interactions made with neighboring helices and sheet strands than with helix/strand packing within the connection itself. A number of intriguing observations are also made on the distribution of the identified αβ1 and αβ3 loops within the α/β-barrel motifs. They often occur adjacent to each other; αβ3 loops invariably involve even numbered β-strands, while αβ1 loops involve preferentially odd β-strands; all the analyzed proteins contain at least one αβ3 loop in the first half of the eightfold α/β barrel. Possible origins of all these observations, and their relevance to the stability and folding of parallel α/β barrel. Possible origins of all these observations, and their relevance to the stability and folding of parallel α/β barrel motifs are discussed.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: X-ray structure ; TEM1 ; β-lactamase ; antibiotics ; bacterial resistance ; serine hydrolase ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The X-ray structure of Escherichia coli TEM1β-lactamase has been refined to a crystallorgphic R-factor of 16.4% for 22,510 reflections between 5.0 and 1.8 Å resolution; 199 water molecules and 1 sulphate ion were included in refinement. Except for the tips of a few solvent-exposed side chains, all protein atoms have clear electron density and refined to an average atomic temperature factor of 11 Å2. The estimated coordinates error is 0.17 Å. The substrate binding site is located at the interface of the two domains of the protein and contains 4 water molecules and the sulphate anion. One of these solvent molecules is found at hydrogen bond distance from S70 and E166. S70 and S130 are hydrogen bonded to K73 and K234, respectively. It was found that the E. coli TEM1 and Staphylococcus aureus PC1 β-lactamases crystal structures differ in the relative orientations of the two domains composing the enzymes, which result in a narrowed substrate binding cavity in the TEM1 enzyme. Local but significant differences in the vicinity of this site may explain the occurrence of TEM1 natural mutants with extended substrate specificities. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 21 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: serine carboxypeptidase ; protein modeling ; mutation analysis ; comparative modeling ; cathepsin A ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The deficiency of the lysosomal protective protein/carboxypeptidase L (CARB L) causes the lysosomal storage disorder, galactosialidosis, characterized by neuraminidase and β-galactosidase deficiencies in patients' cells. The three enzymes form a complex inside the lysosome, and the neuraminidase and β-galactosidase deficiencies are secondary to CARB L deficiency. Sequence similarity and common enzymological properties suggest that the protomeric tertiary structure of CARB L is conserved within a family of serine carboxypeptidases which includes the yeast carboxypeptidase Y, killer expression I gene product and several plant carboxypeptidases. We used this homology to build a model of the CARB L structure based on the recently published X-ray atomic coordinates of the wheat carboxypeptidase II (CPDW-II) which shares 32% primary structure identity with CARB L. Small insertions and deletions were accommodated into the model structure by energy minimization using the DREIDING II force field. The Cα atomic-coordinates of the final CARB L model have a RMS shift of 1.01 Å compared to the corresponding conserved residues in the CPDW-II template structure. The correct orientation of the homologous catalytic triad residues Ser150, His429 and Asp392, the potential energy calculations and the distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophillic residues in the structure all support the validity of the CARB L model. Most missense mutations identified in galactosialidosis patients were located in secondary structural elements except for the Tyr211→Asn mutation which is in a loop. The other mutant residues have their side chains deeply buried in the central β-sheet of the model structure except for the Phe412→Val mutation which is located in the dimer interface. The predicted effects of specific mutations on CARB L structural stability correlates well with recently published transient expression studies of mutant CARB L (Shimmoto, M. et al., J. Clin. Invest., 91:2393-2399, 1993). © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: Protein crystallization ; X-ray crystallography ; methanogenic Archaea ; hyperthermophilic enzymes ; halophilic enzymes ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Formylmethanofuran:tetrahydromethanopterin formyltransferase from the hyperthermophilic methanogenic Archaeon Methanopyrus kandleri (growth temperature optimum 98°C) was crystallized by vapor diffusion methods. Crystal form M obtained with 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as precipitant displayed the space group P21 with unit cell parameters of a = 87.0 Å, b = 75.4 Å, c = 104.7 Å, and β = 113.9° and diffracted better than 2 Å resolution. Crystal form P grown from polyethylene glycol 8000 belonged to the space group I4122 and had unit cell parameters of 157.5 Å and 242.1 Å. Diffraction data to 1.73 Å were recorded. Crystal form S which was crystallized from (NH4)2SO4in the space group I4122 with unit cell parameters of 151.3 Å and 249.5 Å diffracted at least to 2.2 Å resolution. All crystal forms probably have four molecules per asymmetric unit and are suitable for X-ray structure analysis. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: small-angle scattering ; x-rays ; allosteric enzymes ; crystal structure ; rigid body modeling ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Solution scattering curves evaluated from the crystal structures of the T and R states of the allosteric enzyme aspartate transcarbamylase from Escherichia coli were compared with the experimental x-ray scattering patterns. Whereas the scattering from the crystal structure of the T state agrees with the experiment, large deviations reflecting a significant difference between the quaternary structures in the crystal and in solution are observed for the R state. The experimental curve of the R state was fitted by rigid body movements of the subunits in the crystal R structure which displace the latter further away from the T structure along the reaction coordinates of the T→R transition observed in the crystals. Taking the crystal R structure as a reference, it was found that in solution the distance between the catalytic trimers along the threefold axis is 0.34 nm larger and the trimers are rotated by 11° in opposite directions around the same axis; each of the three regulatory dimers is rotated by 9° around the corresponding twofold axis and displaced by 0.14 nm away from the molecular center along this axis. Proteins 27:110-117 © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: SacY ; antiterminator ; RNA-binding motif ; crystallization ; x-ray crystallography ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: SacY is the antiterminator protein involved in the induction by sucrose of the expression of the levansucrase gene (sacB) of Bacillus subtilis. In the presence of sucrose, SacY is activated and prevents premature termination of transcription by binding to a RNA-antiterminator (RAT) sequence partially overlapping with the terminator sequence. SacY consists of a RNA-binding N-terminal domain, SacY(1-55), and a regulatory domain, SacY(56-280), sensitive to the sucrose concentration. SacY(1-55) is in itself capable of binding to the RAT sequence and preventing termination independently of the sucrose concentration. In this paper we describe the overexpression, the purification, and the crystallization of SacY(1-55). We obtained six different crystal forms, some of them diffracting to high resolution (〉1.5 Å). Self rotation function calculations indicated the presence of a dimer in the asymmetric unit, which is in agreement with a proposed oligomeric state in solution as observed by high-resolution NMR measurements. The crystallization of some site-directed cysteine mutants opens the way of solving the structure by multiple isomorphous replacement. Proteins 28:590-594, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: computerized data bank ; sequence comparison heuristics ; databank access ; data bank merging ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Four major protein sequence data collections (NBRF-PIR, PSD-Kyoto, PGtrans, and NEWAT) have been merged into a single nonredundant data bank called PseqIP. The data bank entries were automatically matched by a heuristic computer program relying on the fast computation of the number of tetrapeptides shared by two sequences. PseqIP 1.0 includes 6,068 different protein sequences for a total of 1,357,067 residues, representing most of the available sequence information to date. During the course of this work, we found about 600 occurrences course of a protein sequence recorded with a one-amino-acid variation in at least two different data banks. A flat file (ASCII computer-readable format) version of PseqIP 1.0, well-suited for exhaustive homology searches and statistical sequence analysis, is available from our laboratory.
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