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  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (11)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: crystals ; bacterial esterase ; X-ray diffraction ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Large crystals of arylesterase from Pseudomonas fluorescens have been grown at room temperature using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. They grow to dimensions of 0.7 × 0.7 × 0.6 mm3 within a month. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P31 (or P32), with unit cell dimensions of a= 147.12 Å and c= 131.08 Å. The asymmetric unit seems to contain six molecules of dimeric aryles-terase, with corresponding crystal volume per protein mass (VM) of 2.53 Å3/Da and solvent fraction of 51.5% by volume. The crystals diffract to at least 2.2 Å Bragg spacing when exposed to X-rays from a rotating-anode source. X-ray data have been collected to 2.9 Å Bragg spacing from native crystals. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Fed-batch cultures were performed to maximize the α-amylase activity in a bioreactor. Kinetic equations containing a catabolite repression effect were used to model the enzyme formation from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Fed-batch culture experiments were performed using maltose to implement the optimal feeding strategy. Optimal fed-batch culture based on sequential parameter estimation was performed successfully using off-line analysis while the fermentation was in progress. The enzyme activity from the fed-batch culture employing maltose was higher than that of the batch culture by 60%. Enzyme production using starch showed similar trends to those obtained using maltose.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The microbial production of α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was investigated. The microorganism was grown using media containing glucose or maltose at 37°C and under aerobic conditions in a 16-L fermentor. The α-amylase synthesis from maltose was not found to be inducible but was found to be subject to catabolite repression. The maltose uptake rate was observed to be the rate-limiting step compared to the conversion rate of maltose to glucose by intracellular α-glucosidase. The α-amylase activity achieved with maltose as a substrate was higher than that achieved with glucose. A slower growth rate and a higher cell density were obtained with maltose. The enzyme production pattern depended upon the nutrient composition of the medium.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 28 (1986), S. 756-760 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 30 (1987), S. 147-151 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Protein staining ; Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ; Calconcarboxylic acid ; Rhodamine B ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We have developed a new mixed-dye protein staining method that is simple, rapid, and sensitive. A freshly prepared mixture of calconcarboxylic acid (NN, 0.02%) and rhodamine B (RB, 0.04%) in 40% methanol / 7% acetic acid, was used as a staining solution. RB acts as an auxiliary agent to inhibit the binding of NN to the gel matrix, reducing the background staining and therefore enhancing the protein staining by NN. This mixed-dye staining method reduces the total staining and destaining time to less than an hour, and increases the sensitivity to 25 ng of bovine serum albumin, which is greater than the 100 ng sensitivity limit of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250 (CBBR) staining.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0268-2575
    Keywords: two-phase reaction ; organic solvent ; tyrosinase ; phenol hydroxylation ; mass transfer model ; optimization ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A mathematical model that incorporates both mass transfer effects and reaction kinetics was developed for an aqueous/organic two-phase reaction system. The hydroxylation of phenol by tyrosinase was examined as a model reaction. A mildly agitated reactor was employed to maintain a quiescent liquid-liquid interface and stable enzyme activity. Mass transfer rate was expressed as a function of bulk concentration of substrate in both phases, partition and mass transfer coefficients. The model fitted the experimental data well for various reaction conditions such as initial substrate concentration, phase volume ratio, agitation speed and organic media used. Simulations showed that the conversion of substrate was strongly dependent on the initial substrate and enzyme concentrations and phase volume ratio. A lower fraction of organic phase led to an improved product partition and a higher fraction of organic phase to a greater substrate partition. The proposed model could be used for the optimization of two-phase enzymatic reaction systems. © 1997 SCI
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 28 (1986), S. 836-841 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An experimental design to estimate the parameters in a Monod-type equation from batch culture data was examined. Consideration was given to the design of experiments to estimate accurate values of the parameters. Sequential experimental design with the information index was used for this purpose. With this approach the standard deviation of the parameter values was reduced using simulated batch culture data.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 43 (1994), S. 1043-1051 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: cybernetic model ; poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid ; Alcaligenes eutrophus ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The pathway of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) exhibits a mode of transcriptional control induced by environmental stress. A new cybernetic model for coordinated regulation of stress-induced metabolism was developed to predict the growth and the synthesis of PHB in Alcaligenes eutrophus. A plausible objective for this control is optimization of acetyl-CoA utilization so that the cells have a high degree of flexibility in their catabolism. The state equation for key protein synthesis was assumed to have a dependence on the nonlinear control variable. The proposed model can demonstrate the mixed-growth-associated synythesis of PHB. Reported unstructured models were compared statistically with the result of the simulation derived from the proposed model using the experimental data of this study and the literature. The proposed model appeared to provide an excellent description for the overall fermentation range. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: calcium-alginate capsules ; microencapsulation ; invertase ; recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: As a means of integrating cell growth and immobilization, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with invertase activity were immobilized in liquid-core alginate capsules and cultured to a high density. S. cerevisiae cells of SEY 2102 (MAT α ura3-52 leu2-3, 112 his4-519) harboring plasmid pRB58 with the SUC2 gene coding for invertase were grown to 83 g/L of liquid-core volume inside the capsule on a dry weight basis. The cloned invertase was expressed well in the immobilized cells with slightly higher activity than the free cells in a batch culture. Invertase in the immobilized cells showed slightly more improved thermal stability than in the free cells. Storage in a Na-acetate buffer at 4°C and 10°C for 1 month resulted in 7% and 8% loss in activity, respectively. The sucrose hydrolysis reaction was stably maintained for 25 repeated batches for 7 days at 30°C. Continuous hydrolysis of 0.3 M sucrose was carried out in a packed bed reactor with a conversion of more than 90% at a maximum productivity of 55.5 g glucose/L per hour for 7 days. In a continuous stirred tank reactor, the maximum productivity of 80.8 g glucose/L per hour was achieved at a conversion of 59.1% using 1.0 M sucrose solution, and 0.5 M sucrose solution was hydrolyzed for 1 week with a 95% conversion at a productivity of 48.8 g/L per hour. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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