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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Rat ; Cold ; Pineal gland ; Synaptic vesicles ; Zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide (ZIO) reaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In den synaptischen Bläschen der Nervenendigungen der Epiphyse von Ratten, welche 2 und 4 Tage einer Temperatur von −6° bis −8°C ausgesetzt worden waren, hat man eine signifikante Vermehrung des Zinkjodid-Osmiumtetroxyd (ZIO) reaktiven Materials festgestellt. Der durchschnittliche Durchmesser der ZIO-positiven synaptischen Vesiculae betrug bei den Kontrollratten 234 Å und bei den Ratten, welche 2 und 4 Tage unter der Kälte gelebt hatten, 380 Å, bzw. 379 Å. Die ZIO-Reaktion war bei den Kontrollratten in 49,3% der synaptischen Vesiculae positiv, nach zweitägiger Kälteeinwirkung waren 58,7% und nach viertägiger Kälteeinwirkung 72,1% der synaptischen Vesiculae ZIO-positiv. Auf Grund der vorliegenden Arbeit war es jedoch nicht möglich zu entscheiden, ob die Vermehrung des ZIO-reaktiven Materials mit einer gleichzeitigen Zunahme der biogenen Amine verbunden ist.
    Notes: Summary In the synaptic vesicles of pineal nerve endings of Wistar rats exposed for 2 and 4 days to a temperature of −6° to −8° C, a significant increase of the zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide (ZIO) reactive material was observed. The mean diameter of ZIO reactive synaptic vesicles of control rats was 234 Å; in rats exposed to cold for 2 and 4 days it was 380 Å, respectively 379 Å. In control rats the ZIO reaction was positive in 49,3% of the synaptic vesicles. The reactivity increased to 58,7% in rats exposed to cold for 2 days, and to 72,1% in rats exposed to cold for 4 days. However, the results of the present study do not permit to conclude if an increase of ZIO reactive material is accompanied by a simultaneuos increase of biogenic amines.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Nitrogen use efficiency ; C3 plant ; C4 plant ; Biomass production ; Nitrate metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Pure and mixed cultures of the dicotyledons Atriplex hortensis L. (C3 plant) and Amaranthus retroflexus L. (C4 plant) were maintained under open air conditions in standard soil at low and high nitrogen supply levels. A comparison of shoot dry weight and shoot length in the various series shows that the growth of the aboveground parts of both species was severely reduced under low N conditions. In both pure and mixed cultures the differences resulting from low N vs. high N conditions was less pronounced with Atriplex (C3 plant) than with Amaranthus (C4 plant). The root dry weight of the two species was not reduced so much under low N conditions as was the shoot dry weight. The low N plants were found to contain a larger proportion of their biomass in the roots than did the high N plants. In general the root proportion of Atriplex was greater than that of Amaranthus. The contents of organic nitrogen and nitrate and the nitrate reductase activity (NRA) per g dry weight of both species decreased continually throughout the experiments. With the exception of young plants, the low N plants always had tower contents of organic nitrogen and nitrate and nitrate reductase activities than did the high N plants. The highest values of NRA were measured in the leaf laminae. The eaves also exhibited the highest concentrations of organic nitrogen. The highest nitrate concentrations, however, were observed in the shoot axis, and in most cases the lowest nitrate values were found in the laminae. At the end of ne growing season this pattern was found to have been reversed with Atriplex, but not with Amaranthus. Thus Atriplex was able to maintain a higher NRA in the laminae than Amaranthus under low N conditions. The transpiration per leaf area of the C4 plant Amaranthus during the course of a day was substantially lower than that of the C3 plant Atriplex. There were no significant differences in transpiration between the low N and high N series of Amaranthus. The low N plants of Atriplex, however, clearly showed in most cases higher transpiration rates than the corresponding high N plants. These different transpiration rates of the high N and the low N Atriplex plants were also reflected in a distinct 13C discrimination. The sum of these results points to the conclusion that the C3 plant Atriplex hortensis can maintain a better internal inorganic nitrogen supply than the C4 plant Amaranthus retroflexus under low N conditions and an ample water supply, due to the larger root proportion and the more pronounced and flexible transpiration of the C3 plant.
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