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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: continuous culture ; high density culture ; marine rotifers ; Brachionus rotundiformis ; Brachionus plicatilis ; mass production ; nutritionalimprovement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In order to improve culture stability, as well as to reduce labor andspace for mass production of the marine rotifer Brachionus, an automaticcontinuous culture system has been developed for practical use. The systemconsists of a filtration unit, a culture unit and a harvest unit. In thissystem, filtered water and food are continuously supplied into a rotiferculture tank at a pre-determined rate, and the same amount of culture wateris transferred into a harvest tank to obtain rotifers at a significantbiomass. B. rotundiformis (so-called S-type) and B. plicatilis (so-calledL-type) were successfully mass-produced from the system, under regulatedconditions of 30 °C (for S-type) or 24°C (for L-type), 20 ppt diluted sea water and totaldarkness. As food for rotifers, commercially available concentrated freshwater Chlorella vulgaris was used. The dilution rate was adjusted to0.6–0.7 d−1 for S-type rotifer and 0.25d−1 for L-type rotifer, respectively. The average productionwas about 2.1 billion rotifers d−1 from a 1-m3S-type continuous culture in which high rotifer densities ranging from 3000to 6000 ind. ml−1 were maintained. On the other hand, about0.17 billion rotifers d−1 on average were obtained from a500-liter L-type culture, with densities ranging from 1100 to 2200 ind.ml−1. The longest duration for a continuous culture was over110 days. Furthermore, experiments utilizing five enrichment techniquesindicate that rotifers from the continuous culture system can easily benutritionally enriched in the same manner as those from common batch culturesystems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-7772
    Keywords: Key words Patterns of Care Study ; Cervix cancer ; Radiation therapy ; Elderly ; Process survey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background. To improve the quality of radiation oncology in Japan, a Patterns of Care Study (PCS), a quality assurance program widely known in the United States, was introduced to Japan. In this study, the process, including work-up and treatment for uterine cervix cancer patients, was investigated to show nationwide variation by age. Methods. From July 1996 through February 1997, PCS extramural audits were performed for 29 institutions nationwide. Medical charts for 432 patients with uterine cervix cancer treated between 1992 and 1994 were reviewed based on the PCS data format used in the US. The processes of radiation therapy for these patients were compared in two age groups – those aged ≥75 years (n = 132) and those aged 〈75 years (n = 300). Results. There were significant differences by age group in medical background, indicating the fragility of the elderly and a relatively higher incidence of early-stage disease in the elderly by patient selection. Lower pelvic radiation doses were used for the elderly with advanced stage disease. There were no significant differences in unplanned breaks in external irradiation between the two age groups. Brachytherapy was used less commonly in the elderly group than in younger group (P = 0.0187). The dose range for brachytherapy did not show any significant difference between the two groups. Preliminary survival rates for the elderly were similar to those for the younger group. Conclusion. Radiation therapy was found to play an important role in the treatment of uterine cervix cancer in elderly as well as younger patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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