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  • 1
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Equatorial electrojet ; Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions ; Electric fields and currents ; Auroral ionosphere ; Ionospheric disturbances
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Geomagnetic storm-time variations often occur coherently at high latitude and the day-side dip equator where they affect the normal eastward Sq field. This paper presents an analysis of ground magnetic field and ionospheric electrodynamic data related to the geomagnetic storm which occured on 27 May 1993 during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) experiment. This storm-signature analysis on the auroral, mid-latitude and equatorial ground field and ionospheric electrodynamic data leads to the identification of a sensitive response of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) to large-scale auroral return current: this response consists in a change of the eastward electric field during the pre-sunrise hours (0400–0600 UT) coherently to the high-, mid-, and equatorial-latitude H decrease and the disappearance of the EEJ irregularities between the time-interval 0800–0950 UT. Subsequent to the change in h’F during pre-sunrise hours, the observed foF2 increase revealed an enhancement of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) caused by the high-latitude penetrating electric field. The strengthening of these irregularities attested by the Doppler frequency increase tracks the H component at the equator which undergoes a rapid increase around 0800 UT. The ΔH variations observed at the equator are the sum of the following components: SR, DP, DR, DCF and DT.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Busulfan ; Pharmacodynamics ; Hepatic veno-occlusive disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (HVOD) is a frequent life-threatening toxicity in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after the administration of a high-dose busulfan-containing regimen. Recent studies have shown that the morbidity and mortality of HVOD may be reduced in adults by pharmacologically guided dose adjustment of busulfan. We analyzed the pharmacodynamic relationship between busulfan disposition and HVOD in 61 children (median age, 5.9 years) with malignant disease. Busulfan, given at a dose ranging from 16 mg/kg to 600 mg/m2, was combined with one or two other alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, melphalan, thiotepa). Only 3 patients received the standard busulfan/cyclophosphamide (BUCY) regimen. A total of 24 patients (40%) developed HVOD, which resolved in all cases. A pharmacokinetics study confirmed the previously reported wide interpatient variability in busulfan disposition but did not reveal any significant alteration in children with HVOD. The mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) after the first dose of busulfan was higher in patients with HVOD (6,811±2,943 ng h ml−1) than in patients without HVOD (5,760±1,891 ng h ml−1;P=0.10). This difference reflects the higher dose of busulfan given to patients with HVOD. No toxic level could be defined and, moreover, none of the toxic levels identified in adults were relevant. The high incidence of HVOD in children given 600 mg/m2 busulfan may be linked to the use of more intensive than usual high-dose chemotherapy regimens and/or drug interactions. Before the prospective evaluation of busulfan dose adjustment in children, further studies are required to demonstrate firmly the existence of a pharmacodynamic relationship in terms of toxicity and allogeneic engraftment, especially when busulfan is combined with cyclophosphamide. The maximal tolerated and minimal effective AUCs in children undergoing BMT are likely to depend mainly upon the disease, the nature of the combined high-dose regimen, and the type of bone marrow transplant.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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