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  • CALIBRATION  (9)
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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; CONTRAST ; ASSOCIATION ; ACID ; PATTERNS ; COUNTRIES ; SWEDEN ; DATABASE ; REGION ; FRANCE ; REGIONS ; POPULATIONS ; NETHERLANDS ; FUTURE ; PROJECT ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; nutrient intake ; VITAMIN-E ; RETINOL ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; SCIENCE ; methods ; dietary patterns ; prospective ; vitamin D ; VITAMIN-D ; ERRORS ; RATIONALE ; Vitamin E ; Exposure assessment
    Abstract: Until recently, the study of nutrient patterns was hampered at an international level by a lack of standardization of both dietary methods and nutrient databases. We aimed to describe the diversity of nutrient patterns in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study at population level as a starting point for future nutrient pattern analyses and their associations with chronic diseases in multi-center studies. In this cross-sectional study, 36,034 persons aged 35-74 y were administered a single, standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intake of 25 nutrients (excluding intake from dietary supplements) was estimated using a standardized nutrient database. We used a graphic presentation of mean nutrient intakes by region and sex relative to the overall EPIC means to contrast patterns within and between 10 European countries. In Mediterranean regions, including Greece, Italy, and the southern centers of Spain, the nutrient pattern was dominated by relatively high intakes of vitamin E and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas intakes of retinol and vitamin D were relatively low. In contrast, in Nordic countries, including Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, reported intake of these same nutrients resulted in almost the opposite pattern. Population groups in Germany, The Netherlands, and the UK shared a fatty acid pattern of relatively high intakes of PUFA and SFA and relatively low intakes of MUFA, in combination with a relatively high intake of sugar. We confirmed large variability in nutrient intakes across the EPIC study populations and identified 3 main region-specific patterns with a geographical gradient within and between European countries. J. Nutr. 140: 1280-1286, 2010
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20484545
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; INTERVENTION ; ASSOCIATION ; PATTERNS ; DESIGN ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; DIET ; FAT ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; ALCOHOL ; PROJECT ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; SMOKERS ; CALIBRATION ; MANAGEMENT ; physical activity ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; WEIGHT ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; LOW-CARBOHYDRATE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; dietary patterns ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; WEIGHT CHANGE ; RANDOMIZED CLINICAL-TRIAL ; Lead ; Follow up ; weight gain ; OBESE ADULTS ; PLASMA LEPTIN ; PROTEIN DIET
    Abstract: Background: Meat intake may be related to weight gain because of its high energy and fat content. Some observational studies have shown that meat consumption is positively associated with weight gain, but intervention studies have shown mixed results. Objective: Our objective was to assess the association between consumption of total meat, red meat, poultry, and processed meat and weight gain after 5 y of follow-up, on average, in the large European population who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home and Obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. Design: A total of 103,455 men and 270,348 women aged 25-70 y were recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Diet was assessed at baseline with the use of country-specific validated questionnaires. A dietary calibration study was conducted in a representative subsample of the cohort. Weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between energy from meat (kcal/d) and annual weight change (g/y) were assessed with the use of linear mixed models, controlled for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, dietary patterns, and other potential confounders. Results: Total meat consumption was positively associated with weight gain in men and women, in normal-weight and overweight subjects, and in smokers and nonsmokers. With adjustment for estimated energy intake, an increase in meat intake of 250 g/d (eg, one steak at approximate to 450 kcal) would lead to a 2-kg higher weight gain after 5 y (95% CI: 1.5, 2.7 kg). Positive associations were observed for red meat, poultry, and processed meat. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a decrease in meat consumption may improve weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 398-407
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20592131
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  • 3
    Keywords: PROTECTION ; COHORT ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; MEASUREMENT ERROR ; PROJECT ; CALIBRATION ; EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVIDENCE ; carbohydrate ; glycemic index ; NONSTARCH POLYSACCHARIDES
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Earlier analyses within the EPIC study showed that dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but results from some large cohort studies do not support this finding. We explored whether the association remained after longer follow-up with a near threefold increase in colorectal cancer cases, and if the association varied by gender and tumour location. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After a mean follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 incident cases of colorectal cancer were documented. Total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fibre intakes were estimated from dietary questionnaires at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, education, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use, and intakes of alcohol, folate, red and processed meats, and calcium. After multivariable adjustments, total dietary fibre was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (HR per 10 g/day increase in fibre 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.96). Similar linear associations were observed for colon and rectal cancers. The association between total dietary fibre and risk of colorectal cancer risk did not differ by age, sex, or anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Fibre from cereals and fibre from fruit and vegetables were similarly associated with colon cancer; but for rectal cancer, the inverse association was only evident for fibre from cereals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results strengthen the evidence for the role of high dietary fibre intake in colorectal cancer prevention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22761771
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; SUPPORT ; incidence ; RISK ; RISKS ; INDEX ; ASSOCIATION ; LYMPHOMA ; DESIGN ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; INDIVIDUALS ; PREVALENCE ; body mass index ; EPIC ; nutrition ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA ; RELATIVE RISK ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; BODIES ; multiple myeloma ; WEIGHT ; prospective studies ; HEIGHT ; methods ; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ; SUBTYPES ; MASS ; prospective ; prospective study ; NOR ; B-CELL ; body mass ; RATIO ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer ; non-Hodgkin ; CONFIDENCE-INTERVALS
    Abstract: The incidences of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma are increasing steadily. It has been hypothesized that this may be due, in part, to the parallel rising prevalence of obesity. It is biologically plausible that anthropometric characteristics can infuence the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. DESIGN AND METHODS: In the context of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), anthropometric characteristics were assessed in 371,983 cancer-free individuals at baseline. During the 8.5 years of follow-up, 1,219 histologically confirmed incident cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma occurred in 609 men and 610 women. Gender-specific proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma in relation to the anthropometric characteristics. RESULTS: Height was associated with overall non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma in women (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.14-1.98) for highest versus lowest quartile; p-trend 〈 0.01) but not in men. Neither obesity (weight and body mass index) nor abdominal fat (waist-to-hip ratio, waist or hip circumference) measures were positively associated with overall non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Relative risks for highest versus lowest body mass index quartile were 1.09 (95% CI 0.85-1.38) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.71-1.19) for men and women, respectively. Women in the upper body mass index quartile were at greater risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (RR 2.18, 95% CI 1.05-4.53) and taller women had an elevated risk of follicular lymphoma (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.59-2.62). Among men, height and body mass index were non-significantly, positively related to follicular lymphoma. Multiple myeloma risk alone was elevated for taller women (RR 2.34, 95% CI 1.29-4.21) and heavier men (RR 1.77, 95% CI 1.02-3.05). CONCLUSIONS: The EPIC analyses support an association between height and overall non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma among women and suggest heterogeneous subtype associations. This is one of the first prospective studies focusing on central adiposity and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtypes
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18835833
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; PATHWAY ; PROSTATE ; COHORT ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; ASSOCIATION ; CANDIDATE GENE ; POLYMORPHISMS ; hormone ; genetics ; SNP ; MEN ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; CARRIERS ; molecular biology ; VARIANT ; SNPs ; CANDIDATE GENES ; LEVEL ; USA ; HORMONES ; TESTOSTERONE ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; LOCI ; HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN ; SERUM ANDROGENS ; CONSORTIUM ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR-ALPHA ; sex hormone-binding globulin ; 3 ; Genetic ; genetic variation ; SEX-STEROID-HORMONES
    Abstract: Twin studies suggest a heritable component to circulating sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, 874 SNPs in 37 candidate genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway were examined in relation to circulating levels of SHBG (N = 4720), testosterone (N = 4678), 3 alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide (N = 4767) and 17 beta-estradiol (N = 2014) in Caucasian men. rs1799941 in SHBG is highly significantly associated with circulating levels of SHBG (P = 4.52 x 10(-21)), consistent with previous studies, and testosterone (P = 7.54 x 10(-15)), with mean difference of 26.9 and 14.3%, respectively, comparing wild-type to homozygous variant carriers. Further noteworthy novel findings were observed between SNPs in ESR1 with testosterone levels (rs722208, mean difference = 8.8%, P = 7.37 x 10(-6)) and SRD5A2 with 3 alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide (rs2208532, mean difference = 11.8%, P = 1.82 x 10(-6)). Genetic variation in genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway is associated with differences in circulating SHBG and sex steroid hormones
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19574343
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; lung cancer ; SUPPORT ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; HETEROCYCLIC AMINES ; ASSOCIATION ; WOMEN ; FISH ; DIET ; FAT ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; meat ; CALIBRATION ; DIETARY HABITS ; RECALLS ; HEME IRON ; MUTAGENS
    Abstract: Evidence from case-control studies, but less so from cohort studies, suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the frame of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC. Data from 478,021 participants, recruited from 10 European countries, who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-2000 were evaluated; 1,822 incident primary lung cancer cases were included in the present evaluation. Relative risk estimates were calculated for categories of meat intake using multi-variably adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. In addition, the continuous intake variables were calibrated by means of 24-h diet recall data to account for part of the measurement error. There were no consistent associations between meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer. Neither red meat (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.89-1.27 per 50 g intake/day; calibrated model) nor processed meat (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.34 per 50 g/day; calibrated model) was significantly related to an increased risk of lung cancer. Also, consumption of white meat and fish was not associated with the risk of lung cancer. These findings do not support the hypothesis that a high intake of red and processed meat is a risk factor for lung cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21479828
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  • 7
    Keywords: RISK ; AGE ; WOMEN ; POLYPHENOLS ; GREECE ; CALIBRATION ; HEART-DISEASE ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; ADULTS ; ESOPHAGEAL CANCER ; intake ; nonsmokers ; Anthocyanidins ; DIETARY FLAVONOID INTAKE ; EPIC-Europe ; Food sources ; LONG-ISLAND
    Abstract: Anthocyanidins are bioactive flavonoids with potential health-promoting effects. These may vary among single anthocyanidins considering differences in their bioavailability and some of the mechanisms involved. The aim of the present study was to estimate the dietary intake of anthocyanidins, their food sources and the lifestyle factors (sex, age, BMI, smoking status, educational level and physisical activity) involved among twenty-seven centres in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthocyanidin intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven redefined centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin) was compiled using data from the US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded by adding recipes, estimated values and cooking factors. For men, the total anthocyanidin mean intake ranged from 19.83 (SE 1.53) mg/d (Bilthoven, The Netherlands) to 64.88 (SE 1.86) mg/d (Turin, Italy), whereas for women the range was 18.73 (SE 2.80) mg/d (Granada, Spain) to 44.08 (SE 2.45) mg/d (Turin, Italy). A clear south to north gradient intake was observed. Cyanidins and malvidins were the main anthocynidin contributors depending on the region and sex. Anthocyanidin intake was higher in non-obese older females, non-smokers, and increased with educational level and physical activity. The major food sources were fruits, wine, non-alcoholic beverages and some vegetables. The present study shows differences in both total and individual anthocyanidin intakes and various lifestyle factors throughout Europe, with some geographical variability in their food sources
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21481290
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; validation ; MEASUREMENT ERROR ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; MULTICENTER ; FOOD ; HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS ; glycidamide
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acrylamide is a chemical compound present in tobacco smoke and food, classified as a probable human carcinogen and a known human neurotoxin. Acrylamide is formed in foods, typically carbohydrate-rich and protein-poor plant foods, during high-temperature cooking or other thermal processing. The objectives of this study were to compare dietary estimates of acrylamide from questionnaires (DQ) and 24-h recalls (R) with levels of acrylamide adduct (AA) in haemoglobin. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, acrylamide exposure was assessed in 510 participants from 9 European countries, randomly selected and stratified by age, sex, with equal numbers of never and current smokers. After adjusting for country, alcohol intake, smoking status, number of cigarettes and energy intake, correlation coefficients between various acrylamide measurements were computed, both at the individual and at the aggregate (centre) level. RESULTS: Individual level correlation coefficient between DQ and R measurements (r DQ,R) was 0.17, while r DQ,AA and r R,AA were 0.08 and 0.06, respectively. In never smokers, r DQ,R, r DQ,AA and r R,AA were 0.19, 0.09 and 0.02, respectively. The correlation coefficients between means of DQ, R and AA measurements at the centre level were larger (r 〉 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that estimates of total acrylamide intake based on self-reported diet correlate weakly with biomarker AA Hb levels. Possible explanations are the lack of AA levels to capture dietary acrylamide due to individual differences in the absorption and metabolism of acrylamide, and/or measurement errors in acrylamide from self-reported dietary assessments, thus limiting the possibility to validate acrylamide DQ measurements.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23114503
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  • 9
    Keywords: DISEASE ; POPULATION ; PATTERNS ; VALIDITY ; CALIBRATION ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; FATTY-ACID ; METAANALYSIS ; ESTROGEN ; RATIONALE
    Abstract: Epidemiological evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet (MD) could reduce the risk of breast cancer (BC). As evidence from the prospective studies remains scarce and conflicting, we investigated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of BC among 335,062 women recruited from 1992 to 2000, in ten European countries, and followed for 11 years on average. Adherence to the MD was estimated through an adapted relative Mediterranean diet (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for BC risk factors. A total of 9,009 postmenopausal and 1,216 premenopausal first primary incident invasive BC were identified (5,862 estrogen or progesterone receptor positive [ER+/PR+] and 1,018 estrogen and progesterone receptor negative [ER/PR]). The arMED was inversely associated with the risk of BC overall and in postmenopausal women (high vs. low arMED score; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.94 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 1.00] ptrend = 0.048, and HR = 0.93 [95% CI: 0.87, 0.99] ptrend = 0.037, respectively). The association was more pronounced in ER/PR tumors (HR = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.65, 0.99] ptrend = 0.043). The arMED score was not associated with BC in premenopausal women. Our findings show that adherence to a MD excluding alcohol was related to a modest reduced risk of BC in postmenopausal women, and this association was stronger in receptor-negative tumors. The results support the potential scope for BC prevention through dietary modification.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23180513
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; LUNG ; MODEL ; FOLLOW-UP ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; COHORT ; incidence ; MORTALITY ; NEW-YORK ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; AGE ; MEN ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; cancer risk ; POPULATIONS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; NETHERLANDS ; case-control studies ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; EPIC study ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; SMOKERS ; VEGETABLES ; EUROPE ; FOOD ; RELATIVE RISK ; cancer,diet,epidemiology,fruits,vegetables,lung cancer,smoking ; FLAVONOIDS ; NONSMOKING WOMEN
    Abstract: Intake of fruits and vegetables is thought to protect against the development of lung cancer. However, some recent cohort and case-control studies have shown no protective effect. We have assessed the relation between fruit and vegetable intake and lung cancer incidence in the large prospective investigation on diet and cancer, the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We studied data from 478,021 individuals that took part in the EPIC study, who were recruited from 10 European countries and who completed a dietary questionnaire during 1992-1998. Follow-up was to December 1998 or 1999, but for some centres with active follow-up to June 2002. During follow-up, 1,074 participants were reported to have developed lung cancer, of whom 860 were eligible for our analysis. We used the Cox proportional hazard model to determine the effect of fruit and vegetable intake on the incidence of lung cancer. We paid particular attention to adjustment for smoking. Relative risk estimates were obtained using fruit and vegetable intake categorised by sex-specific, cohort-wide quintiles. After adjustment for age, smoking, height, weight and gender, there was a significant inverse association between fruit consumption and lung cancer risk: the hazard ratio for the highest quintile of consumption relative to the lowest being 0.60 (95% Confidence Interval 0.46-0.78), p for trend 0.0099. The association was strongest in the Northern Europe centres, and among current smokers at baseline, and was strengthened when the 293 lung cancers diagnosed in the first 2 years of follow-up were excluded from the analysis. There was no association between vegetable consumption or vegetable subtypes and lung cancer risk. The findings from this analysis can be regarded as re-enforcing recommendations with regard to enhanced fruit consumption for populations. However, the effect is likely to be small compared to smoking cessation. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14639614
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