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  • CALIBRATION  (9)
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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; INTERVENTION ; ASSOCIATION ; PATTERNS ; DESIGN ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; DIET ; FAT ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; ALCOHOL ; PROJECT ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; SMOKERS ; CALIBRATION ; MANAGEMENT ; physical activity ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; WEIGHT ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; LOW-CARBOHYDRATE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; dietary patterns ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; WEIGHT CHANGE ; RANDOMIZED CLINICAL-TRIAL ; Lead ; Follow up ; weight gain ; OBESE ADULTS ; PLASMA LEPTIN ; PROTEIN DIET
    Abstract: Background: Meat intake may be related to weight gain because of its high energy and fat content. Some observational studies have shown that meat consumption is positively associated with weight gain, but intervention studies have shown mixed results. Objective: Our objective was to assess the association between consumption of total meat, red meat, poultry, and processed meat and weight gain after 5 y of follow-up, on average, in the large European population who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home and Obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. Design: A total of 103,455 men and 270,348 women aged 25-70 y were recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Diet was assessed at baseline with the use of country-specific validated questionnaires. A dietary calibration study was conducted in a representative subsample of the cohort. Weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between energy from meat (kcal/d) and annual weight change (g/y) were assessed with the use of linear mixed models, controlled for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, dietary patterns, and other potential confounders. Results: Total meat consumption was positively associated with weight gain in men and women, in normal-weight and overweight subjects, and in smokers and nonsmokers. With adjustment for estimated energy intake, an increase in meat intake of 250 g/d (eg, one steak at approximate to 450 kcal) would lead to a 2-kg higher weight gain after 5 y (95% CI: 1.5, 2.7 kg). Positive associations were observed for red meat, poultry, and processed meat. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a decrease in meat consumption may improve weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 398-407
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20592131
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; PHOSPHORUS ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; FATTY-ACIDS ; DIETARY ; CALCIUM ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; FOOD ; nutrient intake ; BETA-CAROTENE ; NUTRIENTS ; RETINOL ; RECALL ; EPIC PROJECT ; IRON ; dietary patterns ; VITAMINS ; RECALLS ; POTASSIUM ; vitamin D ; 24-h dietary recall ; VEGETABLE-OIL ; magnesium ; nutrient intakes ; food component intakes ; food group combinations ; reduced rank regression
    Abstract: Objective: To identify combinations of food groups that explain as much variation in absolute intakes of 23 key nutrients and food components as possible within the country-specific populations of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Subjects/Methods: The analysis covered single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) from 36 034 subjects (13 025 men and 23 009 women), aged 35-74 years, from all 10 countries participating in the EPIC study. In a set of 39 food groups, reduced rank regression (RRR) was used to identify those combinations (RRR factors) that explain the largest proportion of variation in intake of 23 key nutrients and food components, namely, proteins, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, sugars (sum of mono-and disaccharides), starch, fibre, alcohol, calcium, iron, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, beta-carotene, retinol and vitamins E, B1, B2, B6, B12 and C (RRR responses). Analyses were performed at the country level and for all countries combined. Results: In the country-specific analyses, the first RRR factor explained a considerable proportion of the total nutrient intake variation in all 10 countries (27.4-37.1%). The subsequent RRR factors were much less important in explaining the variation (〈= 6%). Strong similarities were observed for the first country-specific RRR factor between the individual countries, largely characterized by consumption of bread, vegetable oils, red meat, milk, cheese, potatoes, margarine and processed meat. The highest explained variation was seen for protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium (50-70%), whereas sugars, beta-carotene, retinol and alcohol were only marginally explained (〈= 5%). The explained proportion of the other nutrients ranged between these extremes. Conclusions: A combination of food groups was identified that explained a considerable proportion of the nutrient intake variation in 24-HDRs in every country-specific EPIC population in a similar manner. This indicates that, despite the large variability in food and nutrient intakes reported in the EPIC, the variance of intake of important nutrients is explained, to a large extent, by similar food group combinations across countries.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888278
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; ACIDS ; OBESITY ; VALIDITY ; PROJECT ; CALIBRATION ; ADULTS ; PARTICIPANTS ; CUTOFF
    Abstract: Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344 757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5.0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5.70 (95% CI 4.35, 7.06), 2.23 (95% CI 0.16, 4.31) and 11.12 (95% CI 8.17, 14.08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1.02 (95% CI 1.01, 1.02), 1.01 (95% CI 1.00, 1.02) and 1.02 (95% CI 1.01, 1.04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over-or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95% CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22716915
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  • 4
    Keywords: POPULATION ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; VALIDITY ; CALIBRATION ; METAANALYSIS ; PREMENOPAUSAL ; CAFFEINE CONSUMPTION ; SEX-HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS ; DECAFFEINATED COFFEE
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Specific coffee subtypes and tea may impact risk of pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer differently. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated, decaffeinated) and tea intake and risk of breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 335,060 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) Study, completed a dietary questionnaire from 1992 to 2000, and were followed-up until 2010 for incidence of breast cancer. Hazard ratios (HR) of breast cancer by country-specific, as well as cohort-wide categories of beverage intake were estimated. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 11 years, 1064 premenopausal, and 9134 postmenopausal breast cancers were diagnosed. Caffeinated coffee intake was associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: adjusted HR = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82 to 0.98, for high versus low consumption; P trend = 0.029. While there was no significant effect modification by hormone receptor status (P = 0.711), linear trend for lower risk of breast cancer with increasing caffeinated coffee intake was clearest for estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-), postmenopausal breast cancer (P = 0.008). For every 100 ml increase in caffeinated coffee intake, the risk of ER-PR- breast cancer was lower by 4% (adjusted HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.00). Non-consumers of decaffeinated coffee had lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (adjusted HR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.99) compared to low consumers, without evidence of dose-response relationship (P trend = 0.128). Exclusive decaffeinated coffee consumption was not related to postmenopausal breast cancer risk, compared to any decaffeinated-low caffeinated intake (adjusted HR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.14), or to no intake of any coffee (HR: 0.96; 95%: 0.82 to 1.14). Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee were not associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Tea intake was neither associated with pre- nor post-menopausal breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Higher caffeinated coffee intake may be associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Decaffeinated coffee intake does not seem to be associated with breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25637171
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  • 5
    Keywords: COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; INDEX ; MEASUREMENT ERROR ; VALIDITY ; CALIBRATION ; DIETARY-INTAKE MEASUREMENTS ; METAANALYSIS ; FAT INTAKE
    Abstract: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death worldwide with large geographical variation, which implies the contribution of diet and lifestyle in its etiology. We examined the association of meat and fish consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 477,202 EPIC participants from 10 European countries recruited between 1992 and 2000 were included in our analysis. Until 2008, 865 nonendocrine pancreatic cancer cases have been observed. Calibrated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using multivariable-adjusted Cox hazard regression models. The consumption of red meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.93-1.14) and processed meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.71-1.23) were not associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk. Poultry consumption tended to be associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.04-2.84); however, there was no association with fish consumption (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.92-1.62). Our results do not support the conclusion of the World Cancer Research Fund that red or processed meat consumption may possibly increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. The positive association of poultry consumption with pancreatic cancer might be a chance finding as it contradicts most previous findings.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22610753
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; validation ; MEASUREMENT ERROR ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; MULTICENTER ; FOOD ; HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS ; glycidamide
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acrylamide is a chemical compound present in tobacco smoke and food, classified as a probable human carcinogen and a known human neurotoxin. Acrylamide is formed in foods, typically carbohydrate-rich and protein-poor plant foods, during high-temperature cooking or other thermal processing. The objectives of this study were to compare dietary estimates of acrylamide from questionnaires (DQ) and 24-h recalls (R) with levels of acrylamide adduct (AA) in haemoglobin. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, acrylamide exposure was assessed in 510 participants from 9 European countries, randomly selected and stratified by age, sex, with equal numbers of never and current smokers. After adjusting for country, alcohol intake, smoking status, number of cigarettes and energy intake, correlation coefficients between various acrylamide measurements were computed, both at the individual and at the aggregate (centre) level. RESULTS: Individual level correlation coefficient between DQ and R measurements (r DQ,R) was 0.17, while r DQ,AA and r R,AA were 0.08 and 0.06, respectively. In never smokers, r DQ,R, r DQ,AA and r R,AA were 0.19, 0.09 and 0.02, respectively. The correlation coefficients between means of DQ, R and AA measurements at the centre level were larger (r 〉 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that estimates of total acrylamide intake based on self-reported diet correlate weakly with biomarker AA Hb levels. Possible explanations are the lack of AA levels to capture dietary acrylamide due to individual differences in the absorption and metabolism of acrylamide, and/or measurement errors in acrylamide from self-reported dietary assessments, thus limiting the possibility to validate acrylamide DQ measurements.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23114503
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  • 7
    Keywords: COLORECTAL-CANCER ; DNA methylation ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; CALIBRATION ; RECALL ; EPIC PROJECT ; COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT ; NEURAL-TUBE DEFECTS ; FOLIC-ACID FORTIFICATION ; VITAMIN-B-12 STATUS
    Abstract: Folate plays an important role in the synthesis and methylation of DNA as a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism. Inadequate folate intake has been linked to adverse health events. However, comparable information on dietary folate intake across European countries has never been reported. The objective of the present study was to describe the dietary folate intake and its food sources in ten countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 36 034 participants (aged 35-74 years) who completed a single 24 h dietary recall using a computerised interview software program, EPIC-Soft (R) (International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon). Dietary folate intake was estimated using the standardised EPIC Nutrient DataBase, adjusted for age, energy intake, weight and height and weighted by season and day of recall. Adjusted mean dietary folate intake in most centres ranged from 250 to 350 mu g/d in men and 200 to 300 mu g/d in women. Folate intake tended to be lower among current smokers and heavier alcohol drinkers and to increase with educational level, especially in women. Supplement users (any types) were likely to report higher dietary folate intake in most centres. Vegetables, cereals and fruits, nuts and seeds were the main contributors to folate intake. Nonetheless, the type and pattern of consumption of these main food items varied across the centres. These first comparisons of standardised dietary folate intakes across different European populations show moderate regional differences (except the UK health conscious group), and variation by sex, educational level, smoking and alcohol-drinking status, and supplement use.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22040523
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROTEIN ; ASSOCIATION ; DESIGN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; DATABASE ; DIET ; DIETARY ; FAT ; CALCIUM ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; EUROPE ; FOOD ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; nutrient intake ; NUTRIENTS ; RECALL ; EPIC PROJECT ; VITAMIN-C ; dietary intake ; STANDARDIZATION ; carbohydrate ; eating out of home ; 24-h dietary recall ; RATIONALE ; EPIC-soft ; nutrient intakes ; nutrient patterns ; AMERICA ; FOOD-CONSUMPTION
    Abstract: Objectives: To assess the contribution of out-of-home (OH) energy and nutrient intake to total dietary intake, and to compare out-versus in-home nutrient patterns among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 participants aged between 35-74 years completed a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a software programme (EPIC-Soft) that recorded the place of food/drink consumption. Eating OH was defined as the consumption of foods and beverages anywhere other than in household premises, irrespective of the place of purchase/preparation. Nutrient intakes were estimated using a standardized nutrient database. Mean intakes were adjusted for age and weighted by season and day of recall. Results: Among women, OH eating contributed more to total fat intake than to intakes of protein and carbohydrates. Among both genders, and particularly in southern Europe, OH eating contributed more to sugar and starch intakes and less to total fibre intake. The contribution of OH eating was also lower for calcium and vitamin C intakes. The composition of diet at home was different from that consumed out of home in southern countries, but was relatively similar in the north. Conclusions: In northern Europe, OH and in-home eating are homogeneous, whereas southern Europeans consider OH eating as a distinctive occasion. In most centres, women selected more fat-rich items when eating out.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888277
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; validation ; AGE ; WOMEN ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE ; MULTICENTER COHORT ; MASS INDEX ; EPIC CALIBRATION ; measurement errors ; RECALL ; biomarker ; ADJUSTMENT ; POTASSIUM ; 24-h dietary recall ; CONFIDENCE-INTERVALS ; EPIC-soft ; 24-HOUR URINARY NITROGEN ; DIETARY MEASUREMENT ERROR ; urinary measurements
    Abstract: Objectives: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, the performance of 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) measurements as reference measurements in a linear regression calibration model is evaluated critically at the individual (within-centre) and aggregate (between-centre) levels by using unbiased estimates of urinary measurements of nitrogen and potassium intakes. Methods: Between 1995 and 1999, 1072 study subjects (59% women) from 12 EPIC centres volunteered to collect 24-h urine samples. Log-transformed questionnaire, 24-HDR and urinary measurements of nitrogen and potassium intakes were analysed in a multivariate measurement error model to estimate the validity of coefficients and error correlations in self-reported dietary measurements. In parallel, correlations between means of 24-HDR and urinary measurements were computed. Linear regression calibration models were used to estimate the regression dilution (attenuation) factors. Results: After adjustment for sex, centre, age, body mass index and height, the validity coefficients for 24-HDRs were 0.285 (95% confidence interval: 0.194, 0.367) and 0.371 (0.291, 0.446) for nitrogen and potassium intakes, respectively. The attenuation factors estimated in a linear regression calibration model were 0.368 (0.228, 0.508) for nitrogen and 0.500 (0.361, 0.639) for potassium intakes; only the former was different from the estimate obtained using urinary measurements in the measurement error model. The aggregate-level correlation coefficients between means of urinary and 24-HDR measurements were 0.838 (0.637, 0.932) and 0.756 (0.481, 0.895) for nitrogen and potassium intakes, respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that 24-HDRs can be used as reference measurements at the individual and aggregate levels for potassium intake, whereas, for nitrogen intake, good performance is observed for between-centre calibration, but some limitations are apparent at the individual level.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888273
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