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  • CANCER  (11)
  • 1
    Keywords: radiotherapy ; CANCER ; THERAPY ; CT ; IMAGES ; radiation ; RADIATION-THERAPY ; NECK ; HEAD ; CT images ; NECK-CANCER ; head and neck cancer ; radiation therapy ; THERAPIES ; NECK CANCER
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; RADIATION-THERAPY ; VARIABILITY ; HEAD ; FRAMEWORK ; adaptive radiotherapy
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of a commercially available deformable image registration tool in a clinical situation. In addition, to demonstrate a method to evaluate the resulting transformation of such a tool to a reference defined by multiple experts. For 16 patients (seven head and neck, four thoracic, five abdominal), 30-50 anatomical landmarks were defined on recognizable spots of a planning CT and a corresponding fraction CT. A commercially available deformable image registration tool, Velocity AI, was used to align all fraction CTs with the respective planning CTs. The registration accuracy was quantified by means of the target registration error in respect to expert-defined landmarks, considering the interobserver variation of five observers. The interobserver uncertainty of the landmark definition in our data sets is found to be 1.2 +/- 1.1 mm. In general the deformable image registration tool decreases the extent of observable misalignments from 4-8 mm to 1-4 mm for nearly 50% of the landmarks (to 77% in sum). Only small differences are observed in the alignment quality of scans with different tumor location. Smallest residual deviations were achieved in scans of the head and neck region (79%, 〈= 4 mm) and the thoracic cases (79%, 〈= 4 mm), followed by the abdominal cases (59%, 〈= 4 mm). No difference is observed in the alignment quality of different tissue types (bony vs. soft tissue). The investigated commercially available deformable image registration tool is capable of reducing a mean target registration error to a level that is clinically acceptable for the evaluation of retreatment plans and replanning in case of gross tumor change during treatment. Yet, since the alignment quality needs to be improved further, the individual result of the deformable image registration tool has still to be judged by the physician prior to application.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24423856
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; DISTANCE ; REGISTRATION ; FEATURES ; SPINE ; CT images ; hip ; METASTATIC-DISEASE ; QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERIZATION ; SEMIAUTOMATED SEGMENTATION
    Abstract: Purpose: Most of the patients who died of breast cancer have developed bone metastases. To understand the pathogenesis of bone metastases and to analyze treatment response of different bone remodeling therapies, preclinical animal models are examined. In breast cancer, bone metastases are often bone destructive. To assess treatment response of bone remodeling therapies, the volumes of these lesions have to be determined during the therapy process. The manual delineation of missing structures, especially if large parts are missing, is very time-consuming and not reproducible. Reproducibility is highly important to have comparable results during the therapy process. Therefore, a computerized approach is needed. Also for the preclinical research, a reproducible measurement of the lesions is essential. Here, the authors present an automated segmentation method for the measurement of missing bone mass in a preclinical rat model with bone metastases in the hind leg bones based on 3D CT scans. Methods: The affected bone structure is compared to a healthy model. Since in this preclinical rat trial the metastasis only occurs on the right hind legs, which is assured by using vessel clips, the authors use the left body side as a healthy model. The left femur is segmented with a statistical shape model which is initialised using the automatically segmented medullary cavity. The left tibia and fibula are segmented using volume growing starting at the tibia medullary cavity and stopping at the femur boundary. Masked images of both segmentations are mirrored along the median plane and transferred manually to the position of the affected bone by rigid registration. Affected bone and healthy model are compared based on their gray values. If the gray value of a voxel indicates bone mass in the healthy model and no bone in the affected bone, this voxel is considered to be osteolytic. Results: The lesion segmentations complete the missing bone structures in a reasonable way. The mean ratio v(r)/v(m) of the reconstructed bone volume v(r) and the healthy model bone volume v(m) is 1.07, which indicates a good reconstruction of the modified bone. Conclusions: The qualitative and quantitative comparison of manual and semi-automated segmentation results have shown that comparing a modified bone structure with a healthy model can be used to identify and measure missing bone mass in a reproducible way.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24320541
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; CT ; ACCURACY ; VARIABILITY ; PHASE-II ; SOLID TUMORS ; CRITERIA ; TUMOR RESPONSE ; RAT MODEL ; INTEROBSERVER
    Abstract: RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Aim of the study was to compare between volumetric and unidimensional approaches for treatment response monitoring in a nude rat model of experimental bone metastases. For the volumetric approach, an automated segmentation algorithm of osteolytic lesions was introduced and compared to manual volumetry. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nude rats bearing osteolytic metastases were treated with zoledronate and sunitinib and compared to controls. Treatment response was assessed longitudinally in vivo using flat-panel volumetric computed tomography at days 30, 35, 45, and 55 after tumor cell inoculation. The mean sizes and volumes of osteolytic lesions were determined according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) and by automated and manual volumetry (software: MITK [The Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit, Heidelberg, Germany] and VIRTUOS, Heidelberg, Germany). RESULTS: In contrary to RECIST, the manual volumetric approach indicated a significant decrease in osteolytic lesion volume in response to treatment. The presented automatic segmentation algorithm for treatment monitoring identified bone metastases adequately and assessed changes in the osteolytic lesion volume over time according to manual volumetry. CONCLUSIONS: In an animal model, volumetric treatment response assessment of osteolytic bone metastases is superior to unidimensional measurements, and automated volumetric segmentation may be a valuable alternative to manual volume determination.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24998693
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; radiotherapy ; tumor ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; LUNG ; PROSTATE ; ALGORITHM ; CT ; imaging ; INFORMATION ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; MASK ; TISSUE ; TIME ; PATIENT ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; CONTRAST ; treatment ; TARGET ; ACQUISITION ; EXPERIENCE ; VECTOR ; NUMBER ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; REGISTRATION ; BEAM ; DELIVERY ; HEAD ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; MULTILEAF COLLIMATOR ; treatment planning ; BODY ; CANCER PATIENTS ; LINEAR-ACCELERATOR ; RECONSTRUCTION ; IMRT ; PATIENT FIXATION ; IMPLEMENTATION ; INCREASE ; chordoma ; LEVEL ; methods ; fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy ; technique ; MUTUAL INFORMATION ; cancer research ; cone beam CT ; LANDMARK ; INCREASES ; CLINICAL IMPLEMENTATION ; ACCELERATOR ; WORKLOAD
    Abstract: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was the clinical implementation of a kV cone beam CT (CBCT) for setup correction in radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For evaluation of the setup correction workflow, six tumor patients (lung cancer, sacral chordoma, head-and-neck and paraspinal tumor, and two prostate cancer patients) were selected. All patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, five of them with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). For patient fixation, a scotch cast body frame or a vacuum pillow, each in combination with a scotch cast head mask, were used. The imaging equipment, consisting of an x-ray tube and a flat panel imager (FPI), was attached to a Siemens linear accelerator according to the in-line approach, i.e. with the imaging beam mounted opposite to the treatment beam sharing the same isocenter. For dose delivery, the treatment beam has to traverse the FPI which is mounted in the accessory tray below the multi-leaf collimator. For each patient, a predefined number of imaging projections over a range of at least 200 degrees were acquired. The fast reconstruction of the 3D-CBCT dataset was done with an implementation of the Feldkamp-David-Kress (FDK) algorithm. For the registration of the treatment planning CT with the acquired CBCT, an automatic mutual information matcher and manual matching was used. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Bony landmarks were easily detected and the table shifts for correction of setup deviations could be automatically calculated in all cases. The image quality was sufficient for a visual comparison of the desired target point with the isocenter visible on the CBCT. Soft tissue contrast was problematic for the prostate of an obese patient, but good in the lung tumor case. The detected maximum setup deviation was 3 mm for patients fixated with the body frame, and 6 mm for patients positioned in the vacuum pillow. Using an action level of 2 mm translational error, a target point correction was carried out in 4 cases. The additional workload of the described workflow compared to a normal treatment fraction led to an extra time of about 10-12 minutes, which can be further reduced by streamlining the different steps. CONCLUSION: The cone beam CT attached to a LINAC allows the acquisition of a CT scan of the patient in treatment position directly before treatment. Its image quality is sufficient for determining target point correction vectors. With the presented workflow, a target point correction within a clinically reasonable time frame is possible. This increases the treatment precision, and potentially the complex patient fixation techniques will become dispensable
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16723023
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; radiotherapy ; REGISTRATION
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22646758
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; radiation ; HEPATIC METASTASES ; particle therapy ; STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIOTHERAPY ; ADVANCED HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; SCANNED ION-BEAMS ; FIDUCIAL MARKERS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: With the development of more conformal and precise radiation techniques such as Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) and Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT), patients with hepatic tumors could be treated with high local doses by sparing normal liver tissue. However, frequently occurring large HCC tumors are still a dosimetric challenge in spite of modern high sophisticated RT modalities. This interventional clinical study has been set up to evaluate the value of different fiducial markers, and to use the modern imaging methods for further treatment optimization using physical and informatics approaches. METHODS AND DESIGN: Surgically implanted radioopaque or electromagnetic markers are used to detect tumor local-ization during radiotherapy. The required markers for targeting and observation during RT can be implanted in a previously defined optimal position during the oncologically indicated operation. If there is no indication for a surgical resection or open biopsy, markers may be inserted into the liver or tumor tissue by using ultrasound-guidance. Primary study aim is the detection of the patients anatomy at the time of RT by observation of the marker position during the indicated irradiation (IGRT). Secondary study aims comprise detection and recording of 3D liver and tumor motion during RT. Furthermore, the study will help to develop technical strategies and mechanisms based on the recorded information on organ motion to avoid inaccurate dose application resulting from fast organ motion and deformation. DISCUSSION: This is an open monocentric non-randomized, prospective study for the evaluation of organ motion using interstitial markers or implantable radiotransmitter. The trial will evaluate the full potential of different fiducial markers to further optimize treatment of moving targets, with a special focus on liver lesions.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26169281
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; IRRADIATION ; radiotherapy ; SURVIVAL ; carcinoma ; TISSUE ; TRIAL ; RADIATION-THERAPY ; ovarian cancer ; COMPLICATIONS ; FEASIBILITY ; INDUCTION CHEMOTHERAPY ; DOSE DISTRIBUTION ; DEBULKING SURGERY ; Large-field IMRT ; Planning study ; Whole-abdominal irradiation
    Abstract: Introduction: Despite enormous efforts to improve therapeutic strategies for patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma, outcome remains poor even with the advent cisplatinum-based chemotherapy regimen or taxanes with over 70% of patients developing local failure. Several trials were able to establish the potential benefit of adjuvant whole abdominal RT (WAI) though at the cost of sometimes marked side-effects. New technologies like IMRT have the potential of sparing normal tissues thus also potentially limiting treatment-related toxicity, hence a phase I trial was initiated to evaluate potential clinical benefit of WAI with IMRT. We intended to demonstrate that whole-abdominal IMRT is feasible and can be used in a routine clinical setting. Methods: A water-equivalent phantom containing OARs was created simulating organ shape of the upper abdomen to investigate the necessary number of beams for the upper abdominal target irrespective of the number of segments and hence treatment times. We prescribed a total dose of 30 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions to the median of the target. IMRT treatment plans for three patients with advanced ovarian cancer were created using 2 isocentres and between 12 and 14 beams while restricting the number of segments so as to restrict treatment times to less than 45 min. Dose to OARs such as kidneys and liver was strictly limited even below established maxima. Results: In the phantom plans, no clear indication as to the optimum number of beams could be shown though there seems to be a slight trend toward a higher number of beams yielding better results. Examples demonstrating clinically inacceptable dose distributions for plans using only 9 beams. Acceptable treatment plans for real patients could be achieved using 12-14 beams and 2 iso-centres. Treatment plans consisted of 264-286 segments resulting in an overall treatment time of approximately 37-45 min. Mean doses to the kidneys could be limited to 29.3% [23.1-33.2%] (right), and 26.8% [21-30.4%] (left). 50% of the liver received less than 72.4% [61-83%]. Conclusion: IMRT for whole abdominal irradiation in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma is applicable and feasible though treatment planning is complex and time-consuming. There is a significant reduction of dose to critical organs by using IMRT while maintaining target volume coverage.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21215671
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  • 9
    Keywords: RADIATION-THERAPY ; THERAPIES ; radiation ; CANCER ; THERAPY ; DISPLACEMENT ; radiation therapy ; analysis ; cancer research
    Type of Publication: Meeting abstract published
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; IRRADIATION ; radiotherapy ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; THERAPY ; ALGORITHM ; CT ; QUANTIFICATION ; VOLUME ; ACCURACY ; radiation ; PATIENT ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; treatment ; RADIATION-THERAPY ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; MODULATION ; DELIVERY ; HEAD ; NECK ; COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY ; treatment planning ; LINEAR-ACCELERATOR ; DEVICES ; PATIENT FIXATION ; technique ; UNIT ; cancer research ; EXTENT ; adaptation ; SCANS ; MOVEMENTS ; ACCELERATOR
    Abstract: Modern radiotherapy techniques such as intensity modulation are capable of generating complex dose distributions whose high dose areas tightly conform to the tumour target volume, sparing critical organs even when they are located in close proximity. This potential can only be exploited to its full extent when the accumulated dose actually delivered over the complete treatment course is sufficiently close to the dose computed on the initial CT scan used for treatment planning. Exact patient repositioning is mandatory, but also other sources of error, e.g. changes of the patient's anatomy under therapy, should be taken into account. At the German Cancer Research Center, we use a combination of a linear accelerator and a CT scanner installed in one room and sharing the same couch. it allows the quantification and correction of interfractional variations between planning and treatment delivery. in this paper, we describe treatments of prostate, paraspinal and head and neck tumours. All patients were immobilized by customized fixation devices and treated in a stereotactic setup For each patient, frequent CT scans were taken during the treatment course. Each scan was compared with the original planning CT using manual checks and automatic rigid matching algorithms. Depending on the individual case, the adaptation to variations was carried out offline after several fractions or in real-time between the CT scan and linac irradiation. We discuss the techniques for detecting and correcting interfractional errors and outline the procedural steps of a linac-CT scanner-supported radiation treatment course. (C) 2006 The British Institute of Radiology
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16980687
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