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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROSTATE ; SAMPLE ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; MEN ; smoking ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; US ; NETHERLANDS ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; physical activity ; SERUM ; REGRESSION ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; USA ; HORMONES ; TESTOSTERONE ; older men ; FREE ESTRADIOL ; 3RD NATIONAL-HEALTH ; NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY ; BONE-MINERAL DENSITY ; URINARY-TRACT SYMPTOMS ; HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN ; FREE TESTOSTERONE ; sex hormone-binding globulin ; COGNITIVE FUNCTION ; REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE ; SURVEY NHANES-III
    Abstract: We evaluated the associations of smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity with sex steroid hormone concentrations among 1,275 men a parts per thousand yen20 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We compared geometric mean concentrations across levels of smoking, alcohol, and physical activity using multiple linear regression. Current smokers had higher total testosterone (5.42, 5.10, and 5.26 ng/ml in current, former, and never smokers), free testosterone (0.110, 0.102, and 0.104 ng/ml), total estradiol (40.0, 34.5, and 33.5 pg/ml), and free estradiol (1.05, 0.88, and 0.84 pg/ml) compared with former and never smokers (all p a parts per thousand currency sign 0.05). Men who consumed a parts per thousand yen1 drink/day had lower SHBG than men who drank less frequently (31.5 vs. 34.8 nmol/l, p = 0.01); total (p-trend = 0.08) and free testosterone (p-trend = 0.06) increased with number of drinks per day. Physical activity was positively associated with total (p-trend = 0.01) and free testosterone (p-trend = 0.05). In this nationally representative sample of men, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity were associated with hormones and SHBG, thus these factors should be considered as possible confounders or upstream variables in studies of hormones and men's health, including prostate cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19277882
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; neoplasms ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; cohort study ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; MECHANISM ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; nutrition ; HEART-DISEASE ; ESTRADIOL ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; ELDERLY-MEN ; PHASE ; HORMONES ; HORMONE LEVELS ; TESTOSTERONE ; prospective ; older men ; cardiovascular diseases ; androgens ; sex hormone-binding globulin ; journals ; ADULT MEN ; ALL-CAUSE ; CRITICAL ILLNESS ; LOW SERUM TESTOSTERONE ; NHANES-III
    Abstract: The association of sex hormone levels with mortality over a median of 16 years of follow-up was evaluated in a prospective cohort study. The study included 1,114 US men who participated in phase 1 (1988-1991) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Study and had no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality associated with a decrease in hormone concentration equal to the difference between the 90th and 10th percentiles of the sex hormone distributions were estimated by using proportional hazards regression. The hazard ratios associated with low free testosterone and low bioavailable testosterone levels were 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.87) and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.15, 2.02), respectively, for follow-up between baseline and year 9; they were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.72) and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.72), respectively, for follow-up between year 9 and year 18. Men with low free and bioavailable testosterone levels may have a higher risk of mortality within 9 years of hormone measurement. Future studies should be conducted to fully characterize the association of low free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations and mortality in men and to describe the mechanism underlying the association
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20083549
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