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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; COMBINATION ; LUNG ; MODEL ; MODELS ; TOXICITY ; CLASSIFICATION ; liver ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; microarray ; validation ; QUALITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; PERFORMANCE ; gene expression ; MICROARRAY DATA ; HUMANS ; microarrays ; PREDICTION ; PROJECT ; FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; rodent ; neuroblastoma ; development ; methods ; GENE-EXPRESSION DATA ; DNA MICROARRAYS ; rodents ; RECOMMENDATIONS ; EXPRESSION DATA ; CONTROL MAQC PROJECT ; PUBLISHED MICROARRAY ; RISK-STRATIFICATION
    Abstract: Gene expression data from microarrays are being applied to predict preclinical and clinical endpoints, but the reliability of these predictions has not been established. In the MAQC-II project, 36 independent teams analyzed six microarray data sets to generate predictive models for classifying a sample with respect to one of 13 endpoints indicative of lung or liver toxicity in rodents, or of breast cancer, multiple myeloma or neuroblastoma in humans. In total, 〉30,000 models were built using many combinations of analytical methods. The teams generated predictive models without knowing the biological meaning of some of the endpoints and, to mimic clinical reality, tested the models on data that had not been used for training. We found that model performance depended largely on the endpoint and team proficiency and that different approaches generated models of similar performance. The conclusions and recommendations from MAQC-II should be useful for regulatory agencies, study committees and independent investigators that evaluate methods for global gene expression analysis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; breast cancer ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; ALLELES ; LOCUS ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BRCA2 MUTATION CARRIERS ; 2Q35 ; ESR1 ; GENETIC MODIFIERS
    Abstract: Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs11249433 at 1p11.2 and rs999737 in RAD51L1 at 14q24.1. Although previously identified breast cancer susceptibility variants have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the involvement of these SNPs to breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers is currently unknown. To address this, we genotyped these SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from 42 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. In the analysis of 14 123 BRCA1 and 8053 BRCA2 mutation carriers of European ancestry, the 6q25.1 SNPs (r(2) = 0.14) were independently associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers [ hazard ratio (HR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.23, P-trend = 4.5 x 10(-9) for rs2046210; HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.40, P-trend = 1.3 x 10(-8) for rs9397435], but only rs9397435 was associated with the risk for BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.28, P-trend = 0.031). SNP rs11249433 (1p11.2) was associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, P-trend = 0.015), but was not associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92-1.02, P-trend = 0.20). SNP rs999737 (RAD51L1) was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (P-trend = 0.27 and 0.30, respectively). The identification of SNPs at 6q25.1 associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers will lead to a better understanding of the biology of tumour development in these women
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21593217
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; incidence ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TUMORS ; MICE ; INFECTION ; CONTRAST ; SKIN ; E7 ; papillomavirus ; FORM ; TRANSGENIC MICE ; PROGRESSION ; MOUSE SKIN ; MUTATION ; etiology ; human papillomavirus ; WILD-TYPE ; HEREDITARY ; ONCOGENE ; BENIGN ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS ; CARCINOMAS ; INVOLVEMENT ; squamous cell carcinoma ; INFECTIONS ; SKIN-CANCER ; Ras ; HA-RAS ; CELL CARCINOMA ; HUMAN CANCER ; MALIGNANT PROGRESSION ; RAS GENES ; TYPE-16 E6
    Abstract: Papillomaviruses cause certain forms of human cancers, most notably carcinomas of the uterine cervix. In contrast to the well-established involvement of papillomavirus infection in the etiology of cervical carcinomas and in carcinomas of a rare hereditary condition, epidermodysplasia verruciformis, a causative role for cutaneous human papillomavirus types in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer has not been proven. In order to better understand the functions of individual genes of cutaneous papillomavirus types, we generated transgenic mice carrying oncogene E6 of the Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus (MnPV), which causes keratoacanthomas of the skin in its natural host. In the present study, we demonstrate that under conditions of experimental two-stage skin carcinogenesis, fast-paced squamous cell carcinomas develop in nearly 100% of MnPV E6 transgenic mice in comparison to 10% in their nontransgenic littermates (log rank test; P 〈 0.0001). Therefore, we conclude that the MnPV E6 transgene favors the malignant progression of chemically induced tumors. Whereas an activating H-ras mutation is a consistent feature in benign and malignant tumors in wild-type mice, the majority of papillomas and keratoacanthomas and all squamous cell carcinomas obtained in MnPV E6 transgenic mice contain nonmutated ras alleles. These results indicate that the development of squamous cell carcinomas in MnPV E6 transgenic mice does not depend on an activated H-ras oncogene
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15078961
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  • 4
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VIVO ; DISEASE ; GENE ; ACTIVATION ; resistance ; MELANOMA ; p53 ; SWEDEN ; CUTANEOUS MELANOMA ; ABSENCE ; TUMOR-GROWTH ; 3D-culture ; APR-246
    Abstract: Disseminating malignant melanoma is a lethal disease highly resistant to radio- and chemotherapy. Therefore, the development of new treatment strategies is strongly needed. Tumor suppressor p53-mediated apoptosis is essential for the response to radio- and chemotherapy. Although p53 is not frequently mutated in melanoma, it is inactivated by integrin alpha v-mediated signaling, as we previously demonstrated in reference 1, which may account, at least partially, for increased apoptosis resistance of malignant melanoma. In this study we addressed the question whether functional restoration of p53 by APR-246 (PRIMA-1(Met)), which can reactivate mutant p53 and induce massive apoptosis in cancer cells, is able to restore the function of inactive p53 in melanoma. Using a three-dimensional collagen gel (3D-collagen) to culture melanoma cells carrying wild-type p53, we found that APR-246 treatment resulted in activation of p53, leading to increased expression of p53 pro-apoptotic targets Apaf1 and PUMA and activation of caspase -9 and -3. Moreover, APR-246 triggered melanoma cell apoptosis that was mediated by p53 and caspase 9. Importantly, APR-246 treatment also suppressed human melanoma xenograft tumors in vivo in a p53-dependent manner. Thus, wild-type p53 reactivation may provide a novel approach for malignant melanoma treatment, with APR-246 as a candidate drug for such a development
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21239882
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