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  • CANCER  (8)
  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; MODEL ; THERAPY ; DIAGNOSIS ; MRI ; magnetic resonance imaging ; PERFORMANCE ; EXPERIENCE ; prostate cancer ; FUSION ; BIOPSY ; GUIDANCE ; three-dimensional imaging ; GUIDED BIOPSY ; MAPPING BIOPSY ; TRUS
    Abstract: Background. A key challenge for prostate cancer (PC) therapy is to exactly diagnose tumor lesions. In this context we describe a new stereotactic prostate biopsy system, which integrates pre-interventional MRI with peri-interventional ultrasound for targeted perineal prostate biopsies. Furthermore, the novel system allows exact documentation of biopsies in three dimensions. Patients and methods. Stereotactic biopsy was performed in 50 consecutive men with suspicion of PC [median age 67 years (42-77), mean PSA 8.9 +/- 6.8 ng/ml, and mean prostate volume 51 +/- 23.7 ml]. Twenty-five of these patients (50%) had already had a negative transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy. All men underwent multiparametric, contrast-enhanced 3T MRI without endorectal coil. Suspicious lesions were marked before the obtained data were transferred to a novel stereotactic biopsy system. Using a custom-made biplane TRUS probe mounted on a stepper, 3-D ultrasound data were generated and fused with the MRI. As a result, suspicious MRI lesions were superimposed onto the TRUS data. Next, 3-D biopsy planning was performed including systematic biopsies from the peripheral zone of the prostate. According to local standards patients were treated with perioperative quinolone antibiotics and applied a rectal enema the evening before the procedure. Perineal biopsies were taken under live US imaging, and the location of each biopsy was documented in an individual 3-D model. Feasibility, safety, target registration error, and cancer detection were evaluated. Results. The median number of biopsies taken per patient was 24 (12-36). In 27 men of the initial cohort of 50 consecutive patients presented here, biopsy samples showed PC (54%). In patients undergoing their first biopsy, cancerous lesions were diagnosed in 13 of 19 patients (68%). The result was positive in 36% of men undergoing a re-biopsy without previous cancer diagnosis (9/25). A positive correlation between MRI findings and histopathology was found in 72%. In MRI lesions marked as highly suspicious, the tumor detection rate was 100% (13/13). Looking at single cores from highly suspicious lesions, 40 of 75 (53%) biopsies were positive. The target registration error of the first 1,159 biopsy cores was 1.7 mm. Regarding adverse effects, one patient experienced urinary retention and one patient a perineal hematoma. Urinary tract infections did not occur. Conclusion. Perineal stereotactic prostate biopsies guided by the combination of MRI and ultrasound allow effective examination of suspicious MRI lesions. Each biopsy core taken is documented accurately for its location in 3-D enabling MRI validation and tailored treatment planning. The morbidity of the procedure was minimal
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21935634
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; TIME ; MRI ; EXPERIENCE ; ultrasound ; GUIDANCE ; GUIDED BIOPSY
    Abstract: Abstract Purpose: To determine the targeting error of a novel stereotactic prostate biopsy system that integrates preinterventional MRI with peri-interventional ultrasonography (US) for perineal navigated prostate biopsies. Materials and Methods: We performed stereotactic biopsies on five prostate phantoms (one CIRS 053-MM and four CIRS 066). Phantom 053-MM incorporates three MRI- and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-visible lesions, while lesions within phantom 066 are only detectable on MRI. In both phantoms, the 0.5 cc volume lesions are placed randomly. The phantoms were examined by 3T-MRI preinterventionally. Then three stereotactic biopsies from one lesion in phantom 053-MM and from all US-invisible lesions in the 066 phantoms were taken under live-fusion imaging guidance. During intervention, a mix of blue ink and gadobutrol was injected into each biopsy channel. Afterward, another 3T-MRI was obtained. These MRI images were then fused again with the intraoperative TRUS data. Thus, the targeting error (TE) between the planned and performed biopsy cores could be measured. In addition, the procedural targeting error (PTE) between the virtually planned biopsy trajectory and the manually registered three-dimensional needle position of every single biopsy core taken was calculated. Results: The overall TE of the 39 biopsy cores taken was 0.83 mm (standard deviation [SD]: 0.48 mm) with the highest TE in the sagittal plane (1.09+/-0.54 mm), followed by the coronal (0.72+/-0.43 mm) and axial (0.69+/-0.34 mm) planes. The procedural TE, which is provided intraoperatively, was 0.26 mm on average (SD: 0.46 mm). Comparing PTE and TE, there was no statistically significant difference (P=0.39). Conclusion: The TE of stereotactic biopsies using our novel perineal prostate biopsy system is below 1 mm and can be estimated in vivo by the automatically calculated procedural TE. Thus, stereotactic prostate biopsies guided by the combination of MRI and US allow effective and precise examination of MRI lesions.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22283184
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPERIENCE ; COMPLICATIONS
    Abstract: PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that MRI-TRUS fusion technique can increase the detection rate of prostate cancer (PC) in patients with previously negative biopsy. METHODS: Patient records of men with persisting suspicion for PC after previous negative biopsy having undergone either extensive transrectal prostate biopsies (MD Anderson protocol; MDA), transperineal saturation (STP) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion transperineal biopsies (MTTP) in three consecutive time intervals were reviewed retrospectively. The respective approach was the standard for the above indication at these episodes. In Cambridge, 70 patients underwent MDA biopsies, 75 STP underwent biopsies and 74 patients underwent MTTP biopsies. In total, 164 MTTP patients with the same indication from Heidelberg were analysed as reference standard. In total, 383 men were included into analysis. Low-grade PC was defined as Gleason score 7 (3 + 4) or lower. RESULTS: Even though MTTP patients had significantly larger prostates, the overall cancer detection rate for PC was the highest in MTTP (24.2 % MDA, 41.3 % STP, 44.5 % MTTP, p = 0.027, Kruskal-Wallis test). The detection rate for clinically relevant high-grade PC was highest in MTTP; however, this did not reach statistical significance compared with MDA (23.5 % MDA, 12.9 % STP, 27.2 % MTTP, p = 0.25, Fischer's exact test). Comparing MTTP between Cambridge and Heidelberg, detection rates did not differ significantly (44.5 vs. 48 %, p = 0.58). There was a higher detection rate of high-grade cancer in Heidelberg. (36.3 vs. 27.2 %, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Patients whom are considered for repeat biopsies may benefit from undergoing MRI-targeted TRUS fusion technique due to higher cancer detection rate of significant PC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24917295
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; RISK ; TIME ; ANTIGEN ; SPECTROSCOPY ; MEN ; prostate cancer ; FEASIBILITY ; ultrasound ; COIL ; detection rate ; 1.5 T ; ROUTINE ; PSA ; TRUS ; MRI-guided biopsy ; Significant carcinoma
    Abstract: PURPOSE: To investigate the positive biopsy rate of MRI-guided biopsy (MR-GB) in a routine clinical setting, identify factors predictive for positive biopsy findings and to report about the clinical significance of the diagnosed tumors. METHODS: Patients with at least one negative trans-rectal-ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-GB), persistently elevated or rising serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and at least one lesion suspicious for PCa on diagnostic 1.5 Tesla endorectal coil MRI (eMR) were included. Biopsies were carried out using a 1.5 Tesla MRI and an 18 G biopsy gun. Clinical information and biopsy results were collected; logistic regression analysis was carried out. Definite pathology reports of patients with diagnosis of PCa and subsequent radical prostatectomy (RP) were analyzed for criteria of clinical significance. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included, mean number of previous biopsies was 2 (range 1-9), mean PSA at time of biopsy was 11.7 ng/ml (1.0-65.0), and mean prostate volume was 46.7 ccm (range 13-183). In 52/100 (52.0%) patients, PCa was detected. Out of 52 patients, 27 patients with a positive biopsy underwent RP, 20 patients radiation therapy, and 5 patients active surveillance. In total, 80.8% of the patients revealed a clinically significant PCa. In univariate regression analysis, only serum PSA levels were predictive for a positive biopsy result. Number of preceding negative biopsies was not associated with the likelihood of a positive biopsy result. CONCLUSIONS: MR-GB shows a high detection rate of clinically significant PCa in patients with previous negative TRUS-GB and persisting suspicion for PCa.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21512807
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; SYSTEM ; SURGERY ; INTERNATIONAL-SOCIETY ; ACADEMIC MEDICAL-CENTERS ; APPROPRIATENESS
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To define terms and processes and agree on a minimum dataset in relation to transperineal prostate biopsy procedures and enhanced prostate diagnostics. To identify the need for further evaluation and establish a collaborative research practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 19-member multidisciplinary panel rated 66 items for their appropriateness and their definition to be incorporated into the international databank using the Research and Development/University of California Los Angeles Appropriateness Method. The item list was developed from interviews conducted with healthcare professionals from urology, radiology, pathology and engineering. RESULTS: The panel agreed on 56 items that were appropriate to be incorporated into a prospective database. In total, 10 items were uncertain and were omitted. These items were within the categories: definitions (n = 2), imaging (n = 1), surgical protocols (n = 2) and histology (n = 5). CONCLUSIONS: The components of a minimum dataset for transperineal prostate biopsy have been defined. This provides an opportunity for multicentre collaborative data analysis and technique development. The findings of the present study will facilitate prospective studies into the application and outcome of transperineal prostate biopsies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23773772
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; radiotherapy ; TOXICITY ; RISK ; EXPERIENCE ; RADIATION-THERAPY ; RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; IMRT ; rectum ; GY
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Due to physical characteristics, ions like protons or carbon ions can administer the dose to the target volume more efficiently than photons since the dose can be lowered at the surrounding normal tissue. Radiation biological considerations are based on the assumption that the alpha/beta value for prostate cancer cells is 1.5 Gy, so that a biologically more effective dose could be administered due to hypofractionation without increasing risks of late effects of bladder (alpha/beta = 4.0) and rectum (alpha/beta = 3.9). METHODS/DESIGN: The IPI study is a prospective randomized phase II study exploring the safety and feasibility of primary hypofractionated irradiation of the prostate with protons and carbon ions in a raster scan technique. The study is designed to enroll 92 patients with localized prostate cancer. Primary aim is the assessment of the safety and feasibility of the study treatment on the basis of incidence grade III and IV NCI-CTC-AE (v. 4.02) toxicity and/or the dropout of the patient from the planned therapy due to any reason. Secondary endpoints are PSA-progression free survival (PSA-PFS), overall survival (OS) and quality-of-life (QoL). DISCUSSION: This pilot study aims at the evaluation of the safety and feasibility of hypofractionated irradiation of the prostate with protons and carbon ions in prostate cancer patients in an active beam technique. Additionally, the safety results will be compared with Japanese results recently published for carbon ion irradiation. Due to the missing data of protons in this hypofractionated scheme, an in depth evaluation of the toxicity will be created to gain basic data for a following comparison study with carbon ion irradiation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT01641185 (clinicaltrials.gov).
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24641841
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; THERAPY ; TIME ; MRI ; PERFORMANCE ; EXPERIENCE ; GUIDANCE ; GUIDED BIOPSY ; PATIENT SELECTION ; MAPPING BIOPSY
    Abstract: PURPOSE: We developed an effective way to precisely diagnose prostate cancer using a novel prostate biopsy system that integrates pre-interventional magnetic resonance imaging with peri-interventional ultrasound for perineal navigated prostate biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 106 men with findings suspicious for prostate cancer (median age 66 years, prostate specific antigen 8.0 ng/ml and prostate volume 47 ml) underwent multiparametric 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Suspicious lesions were marked and data were transferred to the novel biopsy system. Using a custom-made biplane transrectal ultrasound probe mounted on a stepper we gathered 3-dimensional ultrasound data and fused them with magnetic resonance imaging data. As a result, suspicious magnetic resonance imaging lesions were superimposed over the transrectal ultrasound data. Three-dimensional biopsy planning was done, including systematic biopsies. Perineal biopsies were taken under live ultrasound guidance and the precise site of each biopsy was documented in 3 dimensions. We evaluated feasibility, safety and cancer detection. RESULTS: Prostate cancer was detected in 63 of 106 patients (59.4%). Magnetic resonance imaging findings correlated positively with histopathology in 71 of 103 patients (68.9%). In magnetic resonance imaging lesions marked as highly suspicious, the detection rate was 95.8% (23 of 24 cases). Lesion targeted cores had a significantly higher positivity rate than nontargeted cores. The procedural targeting error of the first 2,461 biopsy cores was 1.7 mm. Regarding adverse effects, 2 patients experienced urinary retention and 1 had a perineal hematoma. Urinary tract infections did not develop. CONCLUSIONS: Perineal stereotactic prostate biopsies guided by the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound enable effective examination of suspicious magnetic resonance imaging lesions. Each biopsy core taken is documented accurately for its location in 3 dimensions, enabling magnetic resonance imaging validation and tailored treatment planning. The morbidity of the procedure was minimal.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22014798
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TISSUE ; LOCALIZATION ; PARAMETERS ; CONTRAST-ENHANCED MRI ; GRADE ; TUMOR-DETECTION ; IMAGE QUALITY ; WATER DIFFUSION
    Abstract: PURPOSE: To flesh out the ESUR guidelines for the standardized interpretation of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) for the detection of prostate cancer and to present a graphic reporting scheme for improved communication of findings to urologists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ESUR has recently published a structured reporting system for mMRI of the prostate (PI-RADS). This system involves the use of 5-point Likert scales for grading the findings obtained with different MRI techniques. The mMRI includes T2-weighted MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and MR spectroscopy. In a first step, the fundamentals of technical implementation were determined by consensus, taking into account in particular the German-speaking community. Then, representative images were selected by consensus on the basis of examinations of the three institutions. In addition, scoring intervals for an aggregated PI-RADS score were determined in consensus. RESULTS: The multiparametric methods were discussed critically with regard to implementation and the current status. Criteria used for grading mMRI findings with the PI-RADS classification were concretized by succinct examples. Using the consensus table for aggregated scoring in a clinical setting, a diagnosis of suspected prostate cancer should be made if the PI-RADS score is 4 or higher (〉/= 10 points if 3 techniques are used or 〉/= 13 points if 4 techniques are used). Finally, a graphic scheme was developed for communicating mMRI prostate findings. CONCLUSION: Structured reporting according to the ESUR guidelines contributes to quality assurance by standardizing prostate mMRI, and it facilities the communication of findings to urologists.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23404430
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