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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GENE ; DIFFERENTIATION ; VARIANTS ; DISCOVERY ; ALPHA ; ALIGNMENT ; ESTROGEN
    Abstract: Meningiomas are among the most frequent intracranial tumors. The secretory variant of meningioma is characterized by glandular differentiation, formation of intracellular lumina and pseudopsammoma bodies, expression of a distinct pattern of cytokeratins and clinically by pronounced perifocal brain edema. Here we describe whole-exome sequencing analysis of DNA from 16 secretory meningiomas and corresponding constitutional tissues. All secretory meningiomas invariably harbored a mutation in both KLF4 and TRAF7. Validation in an independent cohort of 14 secretory meningiomas by Sanger sequencing or derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) assay detected the same pattern, with KLF4 mutations observed in a total of 30/30 and TRAF7 mutations in 29/30 of these tumors. All KLF4 mutations were identical, affected codon 409 and resulted in a lysine to glutamine exchange (K409Q). KLF4 mutations were not found in 89 non-secretory meningiomas, 267 other intracranial tumors including gliomas, glioneuronal tumors, pituitary adenomas and metastases, 59 peripheral nerve sheath tumors and 52 pancreatic tumors. TRAF7 mutations were restricted to the WD40 domains. While KLF4 mutations were exclusively seen in secretory meningiomas, TRAF7 mutations were also observed in 7/89 (8 %) of non-secretory meningiomas. KLF4 and TRAF7 mutations were mutually exclusive with NF2 mutations. In conclusion, our findings suggest an essential contribution of combined KLF4 K409Q and TRAF7 mutations in the genesis of secretory meningioma and demonstrate a role for TRAF7 alterations in other non-NF2 meningiomas.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23404370
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; GENE ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; OLIGODENDROGLIAL TUMORS ; IDH1 mutation ; VINCRISTINE CHEMOTHERAPY ; BRAIN-TUMOR GROUP
    Abstract: There is a lack of relevant prognostic and predictive factors in neurooncology besides mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, codeletion of 1p/19q and promoter hypermethylation of O (6) -methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase. More importantly, there is limited translation of these factors into clinical practice. The cancer genome atlas data and also clinical correlative analyses suggest a pivotal role for the epidermal growth factor receptor /protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in both biology and the clinical course of gliomas. However, attempts to stratify gliomas by activating alterations in this pathway have failed thus far. The tumors of 40 patients with WHO grade II gliomas without immediate postoperative genotoxic treatment and known progression and survival status at a median follow-up of 12.2 years were analyzed for expression of the mTOR complex 2 downstream target N-myc downstream regulated gene (NDRG)1 using immunohistochemistry. Baseline characteristics for NDRG1 absent/low versus moderate/high patients were similar. Time to reintervention was significantly longer in the NDRG1 group (P = 0.026). NDRG1 may become a novel biomarker to guide the decision which WHOA degrees II glioma patients may be followed without postsurgical intervention and which patients should receive genotoxic treatment early on. Validation of this hypothesis will be possible with the observational arm of the RTOG 9802 and the pretreatment step of the EORTC 22033/26032 trials.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24395351
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; radiotherapy ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; Germany ; neoplasms ; THERAPY ; FOLLOW-UP ; DISEASE ; GENE ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; PATIENT ; chromosome ; PROGRESSION ; AMPLIFICATION ; DESIGN ; resistance ; STRESS ; chemotherapy ; RESECTION ; PRODUCT ; MULTIVARIATE ; PROGNOSTIC VALUE ; sensitivity ; experimental design ; 1p ; CHROMOSOMES ; GENE-PRODUCT ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; PRODUCTS ; THERAPIES ; END ; GRADE ; biomarker ; oligodendroglioma ; ANAPLASTIC OLIGODENDROGLIOMAS ; HISTOLOGY ; USA ; LOSSES ; OLIGODENDROGLIAL TUMORS ; cancer research ; EXTENT ; - ; PROGRESSION-FREE SURVIVAL ; outcome ; PHASE-III TRIAL
    Abstract: Purpose: The combined loss of genetic material on chromosomes 1p and 19q is strongly associated with favorable outcome in patients with WHO grade 3 anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors. The prognostic value of 1p/19q loss in WHO grade 2 oligodendroglial tumors is less well defined. Importantly, the possible effect of combined 1p/19q loss has not been studied in patients who were! not treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Experimental Design: Seventy-six patients with oligodendroglioma (n = 33), oligoastrocytoma (n = 30), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 6), or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (n = 7) were identified who had not received radiotherapy or chemotherapy after their first operation until the end of follow-up or until the first progression and had tissue for 1p/19q status available. 1p/19q status was assessed by multiplex ligation - dependent probe amplification. Results: After a median follow-up of 3.8 years, progressive disease was documented in 34 patients. The estimated median progression-free survival was 4.6 years. Fifty-eight of the 76 patients had a combined loss of 1p and 19q. The absence or presence of combined 1p/19q loss was not prognostic for progression-free survival using multivariate adjustment for histology, extent of resection, and gender. Conclusions: Combined 1p/19q loss is not a sensitive prognostic biomarker in patients with oligodendroglial tumors who do not receive radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The gene products lost as a consequence of this codeletion may include mediators of resistance to genotoxic therapies. Alternatively, 1p/19q loss might be an early oncogenic lesion promoting the formation of glial neoplasms, which retain high sensitivity to genotoxic stress
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18056167
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; POPULATION ; RISK ; TUMORS ; PROFILES ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; KORA
    Abstract: We have previously identified tagSNPs at 8q24.21 influencing glioma risk. We have sought to fine-map the location of the functional basis of this association using data from four genome-wide association studies, comprising a total of 4147 glioma cases and 7435 controls. To improve marker density across the 700 kb region, we imputed genotypes using 1000 Genomes Project data and high-coverage sequencing data generated on 253 individuals. Analysis revealed an imputed low-frequency SNP rs55705857 (P = 2.24 x 10(-38)) which was sufficient to fully capture the 8q24.21 association. Analysis by glioma subtype showed the association with rs55705857 confined to non-glioblastoma multiforme (non-GBM) tumours (P = 1.07 x 10(-67)). Validation of the non-GBM association was shown in three additional datasets (625 non-GBM cases, 2412 controls; P = 1.41 x 10(-28)). In the pooled analysis, the odds ratio for low-grade glioma associated with rs55705857 was 4.3 (P = 2.31 x 10(-94)). rs55705857 maps to a highly evolutionarily conserved sequence within the long non-coding RNA CCDC26 raising the possibility of direct functionality. These data provide additional insights into the aetiological basis of glioma development.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23399484
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; TUMORS ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; GLIOMA ; temozolomide ; TELOMERASE ACTIVITY ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; SECONDARY GLIOBLASTOMAS ; PHASE-3 TRIAL
    Abstract: Background. Activating somatic mutations in the promoter region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) have been detected in several cancers. In this study we investigated the TERT promoter mutations and their impact on patient survival in World Health Organization grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods. The TERT core promoter region containing the previously described mutations and a common functional polymorphism (rs2853669) was sequenced in tumors and blood samples from 192 GBM patients. O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status was assessed by pyrosequencing in 177 (92.2%) cases. Relevant clinical data were obtained from a prospectively maintained electronic database. Results. We detected specific (-124 C〉T and -146 C〉T) TERT promoter mutations in 143/178 (80.3%) primary GBM and 4/14 (28.6%) secondary GBM (P〈 .001). The presence of TERT mutations was associated with poor overall survival, and the effect was confined to the patients who did not carry the variant G-allele for the rs2853669 polymorphism. An exploratory analysis suggested that TERT mutations might be prognostic only in patients who had incomplete resections and no temozolomide chemotherapy. Conclusions. In this study, specific TERT promoter mutations were markers of primary GBM and predicted patient survival in conjunction with a common functional polymorphism. The prognostic impact of TERT mutations was absent in patients with complete resections and temozolomide chemotherapy. If confirmed in additional studies, these findings may have clinical implications, that is, TERT mutations appear to characterize tumors that require aggressive treatment.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25140036
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; PATHWAYS ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; GENES ; TUMORS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; DESIGN ; GLIOBLASTOMA ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; KORA
    Abstract: While gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors, their etiology is largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci for glioma, we conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of two case-control series from France and Germany (2269 cases and 2500 controls). Pooling these data with previously reported UK and US GWA studies provided data on 4147 glioma cases and 7435 controls genotyped for 424 460 common tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Using these data, we demonstrate two statistically independent associations between glioma and rs11979158 and rs2252586, at 7p11.2 which encompasses the EGFR gene (population-corrected statistics, P(c) = 7.72 x 10(-8) and 2.09 x 10(-8), respectively). Both associations were independent of tumor subtype, and were independent of EGFR amplification, p16INK4a deletion and IDH1 mutation status in tumors; compatible with driver effects of the variants on glioma development. These findings show that variation in 7p11.2 is a determinant of inherited glioma risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21531791
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; radiotherapy ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; CLASSIFICATION ; ASSOCIATION ; chemotherapy ; GLIOMAS ; EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION ; temozolomide ; GLIOBLASTOMA ; IDH1 ; ADJUVANT PROCARBAZINE ; PHASE-3 TRIAL ; 1p/19q ; BRAIN-TUMOR GROUP
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or 1p/19q status determines the prognostic vs predictive role of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in the Neuro-Oncology Working Group of the German Cancer Society (NOA)-04 trial anaplastic glioma biomarker cohort. METHODS: Patients (n = 183) of the NOA-04 trial with known MGMT and IDH1 status were analyzed for interdependency of the prognostic vs predictive role of MGMT promoter methylation from IDH1 or 1p/19q status and treatment, using progression-free survival (PFS) as an endpoint. An independent validation cohort of the German Glioma Network (n = 75) and the NOA-08 trial (n = 34) served as a confirmation cohort. RESULTS: In tumors with IDH1 mutation, MGMT promoter methylation was associated with prolonged PFS with chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy (RT) or RT-only groups, and is thus prognostic. In tumors without IDH1 mutation, MGMT promoter methylation was associated with increased PFS in patients treated with chemotherapy, but not in those who received RT alone as the first-line treatment, and is thus chemotherapy-predictive. In contrast, 1p/19q codeletions showed no such association with the prognostic vs predictive value of MGMT. CONCLUSIONS: MGMT promoter methylation is a predictive biomarker for benefit from alkylating agent chemotherapy in patients with IDH1-wild-type, but not IDH1-mutant, malignant gliomas of World Health Organization grades III/IV. Combined IDH1/MGMT assessment may help to individualize clinical decision-making in neuro-oncology.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24068788
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