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  • 1
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; carcinoma ; CELL ; LUNG ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; METABOLISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; AGE ; DNA-REPAIR ; smoking ; ADHESION ; CELL-ADHESION ; inflammation ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; VARIANT ; CANDIDATE GENES ; METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; INCREASED RISK ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; CHINESE POPULATION ; XUAN-WEI ; METHYLENE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; GENE POLYMORPHISMS ; Genetic ; CENTRAL-EUROPE ; SEQUENCE VARIANTS
    Abstract: Background. Analysis of candidate genes in individual studies has had only limited success in identifying particular gene variants that are conclusively associated with lung cancer risk. In the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), we conducted a coordinated genotyping study of 10 common variants selected because of their prior evidence of an association with lung cancer. These variants belonged to candidate genes from different cancer-related pathways including inflammation (IL1B), folate metabolism (MTHFR), regulatory function (AKAP9 and CAMKK1), cell adhesion (SEZL6) and apoptosis (FAS, FASL, TP53, TP53BP1 and BAT3). Methods. Genotype data from 15 ILCCO case-control studies were available for a total of 8431 lung cancer cases and 11 072 controls of European descent and Asian ethnic groups. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between each variant and lung cancer risk. Results. Only the association between a non-synonymous variant of TP53BP1 (rs560191) and lung cancer risk was significant (OR = 0.91, P = 0.002). This association was more striking for squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 0.86, P = 6 x 10(-4)). No heterogeneity by center, ethnicity, smoking status, age group or sex was observed. In order to confirm this association, we included results for this variant from a set of independent studies (9966 cases/11 722 controls) and we reported similar results. When combining all these studies together, we reported an overall OR = 0.93 (0.89-0.97) (P = 0.001). This association was significant only for squamous cell carcinoma [OR = 0.89 (0.85-0.95), P = 1 x 10(-4)]. Conclusion. This study suggests that rs560191 is associated to lung cancer risk and further highlights the value of consortia in replicating or refuting published genetic associations
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20106900
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; transcription ; TRANSDUCTION ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; INDUCTION ; BIOLOGY ; STIMULATION ; TARGET ; XENOPUS ; INVOLVEMENT ; beta-catenin ; OVEREXPRESSION ; REPRESSION ; WNT ; signaling ; LIFE ; GENE-TRANSCRIPTION ; TARGET GENES ; WNT pathway ; WNT/BETA-CATENIN ; XENOPUS-EMBRYOS ; Lead ; INTERACTING PROTEIN ; RECEPTOR-MEDIATED TRANSCRIPTION ; SNW DOMAIN
    Abstract: The beta-catenin-lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) protein complex is the key mediator of canonical Wnt signaling and initiates target gene transcription upon ligand stimulation. In addition to beta-catenin and LEF themselves, many other proteins have been identified as necessary cofactors. Here we report that the evolutionally conserved splicing factor and transcriptional co-regulator, SKIP/SNW/NcoA62, forms a ternary complex with LEF1 and HDAC1 and mediates the repression of target genes. Loss-of-function studies showed that SKIP is obligatory for Wnt signaling-induced target gene transactivation, suggesting an important role of SKIP in the canonical Wnt signaling. Consistent with its involvement in beta-catenin signaling, the C-terminally truncated forms of SKIP are able to stabilize beta-catenin and enhance Wnt signaling. In Xenopus embryos, both overexpression and knockdown of Skip lead to reduced neural crest induction, consistent with down-regulated Wnt signaling in both cases. Our results indicate that SKIP is a novel component of the beta-catenin transcriptional complex
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20103590
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; POPULATION ; RISK ; TUMORS ; PROFILES ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; KORA
    Abstract: We have previously identified tagSNPs at 8q24.21 influencing glioma risk. We have sought to fine-map the location of the functional basis of this association using data from four genome-wide association studies, comprising a total of 4147 glioma cases and 7435 controls. To improve marker density across the 700 kb region, we imputed genotypes using 1000 Genomes Project data and high-coverage sequencing data generated on 253 individuals. Analysis revealed an imputed low-frequency SNP rs55705857 (P = 2.24 x 10(-38)) which was sufficient to fully capture the 8q24.21 association. Analysis by glioma subtype showed the association with rs55705857 confined to non-glioblastoma multiforme (non-GBM) tumours (P = 1.07 x 10(-67)). Validation of the non-GBM association was shown in three additional datasets (625 non-GBM cases, 2412 controls; P = 1.41 x 10(-28)). In the pooled analysis, the odds ratio for low-grade glioma associated with rs55705857 was 4.3 (P = 2.31 x 10(-94)). rs55705857 maps to a highly evolutionarily conserved sequence within the long non-coding RNA CCDC26 raising the possibility of direct functionality. These data provide additional insights into the aetiological basis of glioma development.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23399484
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  • 4
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; GROWTH ; IRRADIATION ; proliferation ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; MODEL ; CARCINOGENESIS ; KERATINOCYTES ; MOUSE ; EQUIVALENT ; PROGRESSION ; MUTATION ; MUTATIONS ; NEOPLASTIC PROGRESSION ; intraepithelial neoplasia ; organotypic culture ; HA-RAS ; HACAT-RAS ; HUMAN SKIN ; MALIGNANT KERATINOCYTES ; RECONSTRUCTED IN-VITRO ; SUNLIGHT ; UVB irradiation
    Abstract: Ultraviolet B irradiation is thought to enable skin cancer progression as clones of genetically damaged keratinocytes escape apoptosis and expand at the expense of adjacent normal cells. Mechanisms through which potentially malignant cells in human skin undergo clonal expansion, however, are not well understood. The goal of this study was to characterize the role of ultraviolet B irradiation on the intraepithelial expansion of early stage human tumor cells in organotypic skin cultures. To accomplish this, we have studied the effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on organotypic cultures that were fabricated by mixing normal human keratinocytes with beta-galactosidase- marked, intraepithelial tumor cells (HaCaT-ras , clone II-4), which bear mutations in both p53 alleles and harbor an activated H-ras oncogene. We found that when organotypic mixtures were exposed to an ultraviolet B dose of 50 mJ per cm(2) , intraepithelial tumor cells underwent a significant degree of proliferative expansion compared to nonirradiated cultures. To understand this response, organotypic cultures of nor-mal keratinocytes were exposed to ultraviolet B and showed a dose-dependent increase in numbers of sunburn cells and TUNEL-positive cells although their proliferation was suppressed. In contrast, neither the apoptotic nor the proliferative response of II-4 cells was altered by ultraviolet B in organotypic cultures. The differential response of these cell types suggested that II-4 cells were resistant to ultraviolet-B-induced alterations, which allowed these intraepithelial tumor cells to gain a selective growth and survival advantage relative to neighboring normal cells. These findings demonstrate that ultraviolet B exposure can induce the intraepithelial expansion of apoptosis-resistant, p53-mutant, and ras -activated keratinocytes, suggesting that this agent can act to promote the early stages of epithelial carcinogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12839581
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; INVASION ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; IN-VIVO ; MODEL ; VOLUME ; DIFFERENTIATION ; EPITHELIA ; TISSUE ; MICE ; MARKER ; TRANSPLANTATION ; KERATINOCYTES ; SUPPRESSION ; PROGRESSION ; NUMBER ; NUDE-MICE ; MARKERS ; CARCINOMA-CELLS ; TRANSFORMATION ; HUMAN KERATINOCYTES ; keratin ; NEOPLASTIC PROGRESSION ; PHENOTYPE ; intraepithelial neoplasia ; BEHAVIOR ; organotypic culture ; MALIGNANT KERATINOCYTES ; CLUSTER ; HUMAN TISSUES ; E-cadherin ; BASEMENT-MEMBRANE ; keratinocyte ; CANCER PROGRESSION ; 3D ; EPITHELIUM ; connexin43 ; STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM ; cell-cell interactions ; EPIDERMAL-CELLS ; MOUSE SKIN PAPILLOMAS ; tumor microenvironment
    Abstract: We previously reported that normal human keratinocytes controlled neoplastic progression of tumor cells at an early stage of transformation in stratified squamous epithelium. We now studied if cells at a more advanced stage of transformation were also subject to such microenvironmental control. To accomplish this, 3D human tissues that mimic intraepithelial neoplasia were fabricated by mixing genetically marked (beta-gal), early-stage (II-4 cells) or advanced-stage (SCC13) transformed keratinocytes with normal keratinocytes, and tumor cell fate and phenotype were monitored in organotypic culture and after surface transplantation to nude mice. In vivo, SCC13 cells evaded local growth suppression to undergo connective tissue invasion at significantly lower tumor cell volumes (12:1, 50:1 normal:tumor cells) than II-4 cells. This behavior was explained by the growth suppression of II-4 cells, while advanced-stage tumor cells escaped this control and continued to undergo clonal expansion in mixed cultures to form large, intraepithelial tumor clusters. These communities of tumor cells underwent autonomous growth that was associated with altered expression of markers of differentiation (keratin 1) and cell-cell communication (connexin-43). Furthermore, significantly greater numbers of SCC13 cells expanded into a basal position after low-calcium stripping of suprabasal cells of mixed cultures compared to II-4 cells, suggesting that expansion of these cells enabled tumor cell invasion after transplantation. These findings demonstrated that early tumor development in human stratified squamous epithelium required escape from microenvironmental growth control that was dependent on the transformation stage of intraepithelial tumor cells during the premalignant stage of cancer progression. (C) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15856457
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