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  • CD95  (31)
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  • 1
    Keywords: E ; TOCOPHEROL ; VITAMIN-E ; ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL ; CD95 ; LIGAND ; EXPRESSION ; CD95 ligand ; ALPHA
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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  • 2
    Keywords: INHIBITION ; SYSTEM ; INJURIES ; INJURY ; CD95 ; treatment
    Type of Publication: Patent
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  • 3
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; IN-VIVO ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; VITRO ; SYSTEM ; DEATH ; DISTINCT ; TIME ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; primary ; T cell ; T cells ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; culture ; activation-induced cell death ; CELL-DEATH ; UP-REGULATION ; CYCLE PROGRESSION ; DISPLAY ; SIGNALING PATHWAY ; SIGNALING PATHWAYS ; B-CELLS ; immune response ; IMMUNE-RESPONSE ; IL-2 ; INITIATION ; FAS-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS ; DISC ; SIGNALING COMPLEX ; ANTIGEN RECEPTOR ; C-FLIPSHORT ; CD95 ; COMPLEX DISC ; FLICE-INHIBITORY PROTEIN ; INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR
    Abstract: The CD95 (APO-1/Fas) system plays a critical role in activation-induced cell death (AICD) of T cells. We previously described two distinct CD95 (APO-1/Fas) signaling pathways: 1) type I cells show strong death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation and mitochondria-independent apoptosis and 2) DISC formation is reduced in type II cells, leading to mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. To investigate the relevance of these pathways, we set up an in vitro model that mimics the initiation and the down phase of an immune response, respectively. Freshly activated human T cells (initiation) are resistant toward CD95-mediated AICD despite high expression of CD95. We previously reported that these T cells show reduced DISC formation. In this study, we show that freshly activated T cells are CD95-type II cells that show high expression levels of Bcl-x(L) and display a block in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, we show that, upon prolonged culture (down phase), human T cells undergo a switch from type II to type I cells that renders T cells sensitive to CD95-mediated AICD. Finally, we demonstrate that this switch is dependent on the presence of IL-2. Our observations reveal for the first time that the existence of coexisting CD95 signaling pathways is of physiological relevance
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12960316
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  • 4
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; tumor ; Germany ; KINASE ; GENERATION ; DEATH ; PROTEIN ; MICE ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; BINDING ; PHOSPHORYLATION ; SUPPRESSION ; ALPHA ; CLEAVAGE ; TRANSGENIC MICE ; activation-induced cell death ; CELL-DEATH ; INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; LYMPHOCYTES ; BETA ; T-LYMPHOCYTES ; sensitization ; TCR ; KAPPA-B ; sensitivity ; SIGNALING COMPLEX ; IMMUNOLOGICAL SYNAPSE ; T lymphocytes ; CD95 ; signaling ; PROGRAM ; RE ; INCREASE ; IMMUNE-SYSTEM ; cell death ; ANTIGEN RECEPTORS ; HPK1 ; progenitor ; INDUCE ; NEGATIVE REGULATION ; SWITCH ; AICD ; CD28 COSTIMULATION ; HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR KINASE-1 ; IKK ; KINASE-C-THETA
    Abstract: Restimulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR) in activated T cells induces CD95 (Fas/Apo-1)-mediated activation-induced cell death (AICD). The TCR-proximal mechanisms leading to AICD are elusive. Here we characterize hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) as a differentially regulated TCR-proximal signaling protein involved in AICD of primary T cells. We show that HPK1 is a functional component of the endogenous I kappa B kinase (IKK) complex and is crucial for TCR-mediated NF kappa B activation. While full-length HPK1 enhances IKK beta phosphorylation, siRNA-mediated knockdown of HPK1 blunts TCR-mediated NF kappa B activation and increases cell death. We also demonstrate proteolytic processing of HPK1 into HPK1-C, specifically in AICD-sensitive primary T cells. The cleavage product HPK1-C sequesters the inactive IKK complex and suppresses NF kappa B upon TCR restimulation by binding to IKK alpha and IKK beta. T cells of HPK1-C transgenic mice are sensitized towards TCR-mediated AICD. Consequently, preventing HPK1-C generation in primary T cells by siRNA-mediated knockdown results in decreased AICD. Thus, these results show a novel mechanism of sensitization of T lymphocytes towards AICD by suppression of NF kappa B, and propose that HPK1 is a life/death switch in T lymphocytes
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16341093
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  • 5
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; DEATH ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; LINES ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; T-CELLS ; CELL-LINES ; VARIANTS ; UP-REGULATION ; NUMBER ; LINE ; cell lines ; REGULATOR ; SIGNALING COMPLEX DISC ; SIGNALING COMPLEX ; EFFECTOR ; CD95 APO-1/FAS ; CD95 ; HUMAN T-CELLS ; PROGRAM ; RE ; CASPASE-8 ; MEDIATED APOPTOSIS ; regulation ; CD95-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS ; SIGNALING COMPLEXES ; FLICE-INHIBITORY PROTEINS
    Abstract: c-FLIPs (c-FLICE inhibitory proteins) play an essential role in regulation of death receptor-induced apoptosis. Multiple splice variants of c-FLIP have been described on the mRNA level; so far only two of them, c-FLIPL and c-FLIPS, had been found to be expressed at the protein level. In this report, we reveal the endogenous expression of a third isoform of c-FLIP. We demonstrate its presence in a number of T and B cell lines as well as in primary human T cells. We identified this isoform as c-FLIPR, a death effector domain-only splice variant previously identified on the mRNA level. Importantly, c-FLIPR is recruited to the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) death-inducing signaling complex upon CD95 stimulation. Several properties of c-FLIPR are similar to c-FLIPS: both isoforms have a short half-life, a similar pattern of expression during activation of primary human T cells, and are strongly induced in T cells upon CD3/CD28 costimulation. Taken together, our data demonstrate endogenous expression of c-FLIPR and similar roles of c-FLIPR and c-FLIPS isoforms in death receptor-mediated apoptosis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15701649
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  • 6
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; proliferation ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; VITRO ; DEATH ; PATIENT ; MECHANISM ; ANTIGEN ; T cell ; T cells ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; CD95 ligand ; CELL-DEATH ; LYMPHOCYTES ; INDIVIDUALS ; sensitivity ; MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS ; GUIDELINES ; CD95 ; AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS ; PROGRAM ; COSTIMULATION ; CD95-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS ; multiple sclerosis ; function ; DEFECT ; regulatory T cells ; EXPANSION ; regulatory T cell ; healthy individuals ; auto immunity ; DIAGNOSTIC-CRITERIA
    Abstract: Impaired suppressive function of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells (T-reg) has been reported as a novel pathogenetic mechanism in Multiple sclerosis (MS). We addressed if high apoptosis sensitivity of MS-T-reg could explain this functional T-reg defect. T-reg from treatmentnaive MS patients showed high sensitivity towards CD95Ligand-mediated apoptosis and exhibited enhanced cell death to IL-2 and TCR-signal deprivation. Since susceptibility of T-reg to cell death was similar in MS patients and healthy controls, this cannot explain the inhibitory dysfunction of T-reg associated with MS. Furthermore, as cell death is not enhanced, therapeutic expansion of MS-T-reg in vitro should be a reasonable and novel therapeutic option. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17092518
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  • 7
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; Germany ; DEATH ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; MECHANISM ; INDUCTION ; INITIATION ; MOLECULAR-CLONING ; FLICE ; OLIGOMERIZATION ; SIGNALING COMPLEX ; CD95 ; COMPLEX DISC ; GEL-ELECTROPHORESIS ; signaling ; RE ; CAP3 ; MOUSE CASPASE-8
    Abstract: Formation of the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) death inducing signaling complex (DISC) plays a central role in CD95 signaling. Previously, CD95 DISC composition was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and four major cytotoxicity-associated proteins (CAP1-4) were found. CAP1 and CAP2 were defined to be unmodified and phosphorylated FADD, respectively. CAP4 was identified as procaspase-8a. CAP3, however, has remained elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that CAP3 is an intermediate of procaspase-8 processing. CAP3 is generated within seconds of DISC formation and subsequently processed to the prodomain of procaspase-8a that is known as p26 (CAP5). These findings lead to new insights into the mechanism of procaspase-8 processing and apoptosis initiation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16179941
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  • 8
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; carcinoma ; Germany ; human ; INHIBITION ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; DEATH ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; PROTEINS ; RNA ; DRUG ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY ; TUMORS ; RELEASE ; TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR ; ACTIVATION ; LIGAND ; MECHANISM ; FAMILY ; DOMAIN ; INDUCTION ; mechanisms ; DOWN-REGULATION ; CYTOCHROME-C ; MITOCHONDRIA ; UNITED-STATES ; RECEPTORS ; OVEREXPRESSION ; TUMOR CELLS ; Bcl-2 ; HUMAN HEPATOCYTES ; TRAIL-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND ; CD95 ; CASPASE ; INHIBITORS ; signaling ; FAMILIES ; SOLID TUMORS ; CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 ; TUMOR-CELL ; death receptor ; downregulation ; function ; caspases ; DRUGS ; cyclooxygenase ; RELEVANCE ; NECROSIS ; MCL-1 ; CELECOXIB-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; PRIMARY HUMAN HEPATOCYTES
    Abstract: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 elicits chemopreventive and therapeutic effects in solid tumors that are coupled with the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. We investigated the mechanisms by which COX-2 inhibition induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. COX-2 inhibition triggered expression of the CD95, tumor necrosis factor (TNIF)-R, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-R1 and TRAIL-R2 death receptors. Addition of the respective specific ligands further increased apoptosis, indicating that COX-2 inhibition induced the expression of functional death receptors. Overexpression of a dominant-negative Fas-associated death domain mutant reduced COX-2 inhibitor-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, our findings showed a link between COX-2 inhibition and the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. COX-2 inhibition led to a rapid down-regulation of myeloid cc leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, followed by translocation of Bax to mitochondria and cytochrome c release front mitochondria. Consequently, overexpression of Mcl-1 led to inhibition of COX-2 inhibitor-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, blocking endogenous Mcl-1 function using a small - interfering RNA approach enhanced COX-2 inhibitor-mediated apoptosis. It is of clinical importance that celecoxib acted synergistically with chemotherapeutic drugs in the induction of apoptosis in HCC cells. The clinical relevance of these results is further substantiated by the finding that COX-2 inhibitors did not sensitize primary human hepatocytes toward chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, COX-2 inhibition engages different apoptosis pathways in HCC cells stimulating death receptor signaling, activation of caspases, and apoptosis originating from mitochondria
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16849551
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  • 9
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; Germany ; human ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; LINES ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; LIGAND ; COMPLEXES ; MECHANISM ; INDUCTION ; CELL-LINES ; CELL-DEATH ; NUMBER ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; CANCER-CELLS ; CYTOCHROME-C ; cell lines ; DISC ; SIGNALING COMPLEX ; CD95 ; signaling ; PROGRAM ; RE ; FAS ; MEDIATED APOPTOSIS ; SIGNALING COMPLEXES ; ADAPTER MOLECULE
    Abstract: Caspase-2 was reported to be involved in a number of apoptotic pathways triggered by various stimuli. However, the molecular mechanism of procaspase-2 activation in the course of apoptosis remains poorly defined. In this report, we demonstrate that procaspase-2 is recruited to the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) in human T- and B-cell lines. We show that procaspase-2 is activated at the DISC on CD95 stimulation. Despite its presence at the DISC, caspase-2 does not initiate apoptosis on CD95 stimulation in caspase-8-deficient cell lines. Taken together, our data reveal that caspase-2 is activated at the DISC but does not play an initiating role in the CD95-induced apoptosis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16822901
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  • 10
    Keywords: Germany ; IN-VIVO ; THERAPY ; VIVO ; imaging ; QUANTIFICATION ; SYSTEM ; TOOL ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; INJURIES ; MRI ; MAGNETIC-RESONANCE ; magnetic resonance imaging ; MOUSE-BRAIN ; DAMAGE ; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ; RAT-BRAIN ; CD95 ; RE ; INCREASE ; RECOVERY ; manganese ; in vivo ; EXTENT ; CORD ; therapy monitoring ; CONNECTIONS ; MEMRI ; MNCL2 ; spinal cord injury (SCI)
    Abstract: In past decades, much effort has been invested in developing therapies for spinal injuries. Lack of standardization of clinical read-out measures, however, makes direct comparison of experimental therapies difficult. Damage and therapeutic effects in vivo are routinely evaluated using rather subjective behavioral tests. Here we show that manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) can be used to examine the extent of damage following spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice in vivo. Injection of MnCl2 solution into the cerebrospinal fluid leads to manganese uptake into the spinal cord. Furthermore, after injury MEMRI-derived quantitative measures correlate closely with clinical locomotor scores. Improved locomotion due to treating the detrimental effects of SCI with an established therapy (neutralization of CD95Ligand) is reflected in an increase of manganese uptake into the injured spinal cord. Therefore, we demonstrate that MEMRI is a sensitive and objective tool for in vivo visualization and quantification of damage and functional improvement after SCI. Thus, MEMRI can serve as a reproducible surrogate measure of the clinical status of the spinal cord in mice, potentially becoming a standard approach for evaluating experimental therapies
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16602070
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