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    Keywords: NF-KAPPA-B ; IMMUNE-RESPONSES ; GLYCATION END-PRODUCTS ; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; CELL-ADHESION MOLECULE ; TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS ; RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS ; SUSTAINED INTESTINAL INFLAMMATION ; NITRIC-OXIDE PRODUCTION ; PATTERN MOLECULES
    Abstract: Promiscuity of pattern recognition receptors, such as receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), allows for a complex regulatory network controlling inflammation. Scavenging of RAGE ligands by soluble RAGE treatment is effective in reducing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), even in RAGE(-/-) mice by 50% (p 〈 0.001). This has led to the hypothesis that molecules scavenged by soluble RAGE bind to receptors other than RAGE. This study identifies CD166/ALCAM (ALCAM) as a close structural and functional homolog of RAGE, and it shows that binding of S100B to CD166/ALCAM induces dose- and time-dependent expression of members of the NF-kappaB family in wild type (WT) and RAGE(-/-) mouse endothelial cells. Blocking CD166/ALCAM expression using small interfering RNA completely inhibited S100B-induced NF-kappaB activation in RAGE(-/-), but not in WT cells. The in vivo significance of these observations was demonstrated by attenuation of DTH in WT and RAGE(-/-) animals pretreated with CD166/ALCAM small interfering RNA by 50% and 40%, respectively (p 〈 0.001). Experiments in ALCAM(-/-) animals displayed an only slight reduction of 16% in DTH, explained by compensatory reciprocal upregulation of RAGE in animals devoid of CD166/ALCAM, and vice versa. Consistently, ALCAM(-/-) mice, but not WT mice treated with RAGE small interfering RNA show a 35% reduction in DTH, and ALCAM(-/-) RAGE(-/-) double-knockout mice show a 27% reduction in DTH reaction. Thus, S100B is a proinflammatory cytokine bridging RAGE and CD166/ALCAM downstream effector mechanisms, both being compensatory upregulated after genetic deletion of its counterpart.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23729438
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