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  • IDENTIFICATION  (10)
  • CELLS  (7)
  • 1
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; PATHWAYS ; DEATH ; MESSENGER-RNA ; IDENTIFICATION ; chemotherapy ; PROGRESS ; Anti-cancer ; ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM-STRESS ; ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR-3 ; Bio-weapon ; Depurination ; RICIN ; RIP ; Riproximin ; UPR ; Volkensin ; XIMENIA-AMERICANA
    Abstract: Cytotoxic ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) of type II such as ricin were investigated as anti-cancer agents, but also pose a threat as biological weapons. The molecular mechanism leading to their toxic effects is, however, not yet clear. The current paradigm, which states that the irreversible depurination of 28S rRNA results in a general translational arrest eventually leading to cell death, has been questioned. Using micro-array, qRT-PCR and Western blot, we identified the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular mechanism activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress, that is induced in HCT116 and MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to the plant type II RIPs ricin, riproximin and volkensin. Apoptosis was induced by concentrations at which translation of UPR-related genes still occurred, despite concomitant ribosomal depurination. We conclude that UPR induction represents a model that better describes the cellular effects of RIP exposure at concentrations at which selected proteins are translated despite ribosomal depurination.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20844919
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  • 2
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; LUNG-CANCER ; TUMORS ; IDENTIFICATION ; leukemia ; URINARY-BLADDER ; STEM-CELLS ; PAX5 ; C-MET ; SMALL-CELL-CARCINOMA
    Abstract: Purpose: For rare cancers such as neuroendocrine bladder cancer treatment options are limited due partly to the lack of preclinical models. Techniques to amplify rare primary neuroendocrine bladder cancer cells could provide novel tools for the discovery of drug and diagnostic targets. We developed preclinical experimental models for neuroendocrine bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: Fresh tumor tissue from 2 patients with neuroendocrine bladder cancer was used to establish in vitro and in vivo models. We analyzed additional archived tissues in the National Center of Tumor Diseases tissue bank from patients with neuroendocrine bladder cancer. Primary tumor samples were collected during radical cystectomy. PHA-665752 was used to inhibit MET in animal models and cell cultures. The expression of markers and drug targets in neuroendocrine bladder cancer was determined by flow cytometry. The growth of neuroendocrine bladder cancer in vitro was determined by counting live cells. Tumor growth in mice was assessed by measuring tumor volume. Groups were compared using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Xenograft models and serum-free cultures of neuroendocrine bladder cancer cells allowed screening for cell surface markers and drug targets. We found expression of the HGF receptor MET in neuroendocrine bladder cancer cultures, xenograft models and primary patient sections. The growth of neuroendocrine bladder cancer spheroids in vitro depended critically on HGF. Treatment of neuroendocrine bladder cancer bearing mice with a MET inhibitor significantly decreased tumor growth compared to that in control treated mice. Conclusions: Neuroendocrine bladder cancer xenografts and serum-free cultures provided suitable models in which to identify diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Using the models, we noted HGF dependent growth of human neuroendocrine bladder cancer and identified MET as a new treatment target for neuroendocrine bladder cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23820058
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  • 3
    Keywords: CLONING ; PROTEIN ; SEQUENCE ; ISOFORMS ; IDENTIFICATION ; CHROMATOGRAPHY ; LECTINS ; RIBOSOME-INACTIVATING PROTEINS ; PLANTS ; Riproximin ; A-CHAIN ; Plant lectin ; RICINUS-COMMUNIS AGGLUTININ ; SAMBUCUS ; Type II RIP ; VISCUM-ALBUM L ; Ximenia americana
    Abstract: Highly pure riproximin was isolated from the fruit kernels of Ximenia americana, a defined, seasonally available and potentially unlimited herbal source. The newly established purification procedure included an initial aqueous extraction, removal of lipids with chloroform and subsequent chromatographic purification steps on a strong anion exchange resin and lactosyl-Sepharose. Consistent purity and stable biological properties were shown over several purification batches. The purified, kernel-derived riproximin was characterized in comparison to the African plant material riproximin and revealed highly similar biochemical and biological properties but differences in the electrophoresis pattern and mass spectrometry peptide profile. Our results suggest that although the purified fruit kernel riproximin consists of a mixture of closely related isoforms, it provides a reliable basis for further research and development of this type II ribosome inactivating protein (RIP).
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22178181
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  • 4
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; DIFFERENTIATION ; PROGRESSION ; REPRESSION ; NASOPHARYNGEAL CARCINOMA ; GROUP PROTEIN EZH2 ; POLYCOMB ; GENE FUSIONS
    Abstract: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men worldwide. Alterations in the DNA methylation pattern can be one of the leading causes for prostate cancer formation. This study is the first high-throughput sequencing study investigating genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in a large cohort of 51 tumor and 53 benign prostate samples using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. Comparative analyses identified more than 147,000 cancer-associated epigenetic alterations. In addition, global methylation patterns show significant differences based on the TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangement status. We propose the hypermethylation of miR-26a as an alternative pathway of ERG rearrangement-independent EZH2 activation. The observed increase in differential methylation events in fusion-negative tumors can explain the tumorigenic process in the absence of genomic rearrangements. SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to TMPRSS2-ERG -rearranged tumors, the pathomechanism for gene fusion-negative tumors is completely unclear. Using a sequencing-based approach, our work uncovers significant global epigenetic alterations in TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion-negative tumors and provides a mechanistic explanation for the tumor formation process.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22930729
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  • 5
    Keywords: CELLS ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; FAMILY ; GERMLINE ; SMALL RNAS ; EWINGS-SARCOMA TRANSLOCATION ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ERG ; TMPRSS2-ERG FUSION ; PIWI PROTEINS ; EWS GENE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Overexpression of ERG transcription factor due to genomic ERG-rearrangements defines a separate molecular subtype of prostate tumors. One of the consequences of ERG accumulation is modulation of the cell's gene expression profile. Tudor domain-containing protein 1 gene (TDRD1) was reported to be differentially expressed between TMPRSS2:ERG-negative and TMPRSS2:ERG-positive prostate cancer. The aim of our study was to provide a mechanistic explanation for the transcriptional activation of TDRD1 in ERG rearrangement-positive prostate tumors. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression measurements by real-time quantitative PCR revealed a remarkable co-expression of TDRD1 and ERG (r(2) = 0.77) but not ETV1 (r(2)〈0.01) in human prostate cancer in vivo. DNA methylation analysis by MeDIP-Seq and bisulfite sequencing showed that TDRD1 expression is inversely correlated with DNA methylation at the TDRD1 promoter in vitro and in vivo (rho = -0.57). Accordingly, demethylation of the TDRD1 promoter in TMPRSS2:ERG-negative prostate cancer cells by DNA methyltransferase inhibitors resulted in TDRD1 induction. By manipulation of ERG dosage through gene silencing and forced expression we show that ERG governs loss of DNA methylation at the TDRD1 promoter-associated CpG island, leading to TDRD1 overexpression. CONCLUSIONSSIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that ERG is capable of disrupting a tissue-specific DNA methylation pattern at the TDRD1 promoter. As a result, TDRD1 becomes transcriptionally activated in TMPRSS2:ERG-positive prostate cancer. Given the prevalence of ERG fusions, TDRD1 overexpression is a common alteration in human prostate cancer which may be exploited for diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23555854
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  • 6
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; EXPRESSION ; PROTECTION ; EMPHYSEMA ; DIFFERENTIATION ; IDENTIFICATION ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; SULFORAPHANE ; epidermal barrier ; DIOXIN
    Abstract: The transcription factor Nrf2 is a key regulator of the cellular stress response, and pharmacological Nrf2 activation is a promising strategy for skin protection and cancer prevention. We show here that prolonged Nrf2 activation in keratinocytes causes sebaceous gland enlargement and seborrhea in mice due to upregulation of the growth factor epigen, which we identified as a novel Nrf2 target. This was accompanied by thickening and hyperkeratosis of hair follicle infundibula. These abnormalities caused dilatation of infundibula, hair loss, and cyst development upon aging. Upregulation of epigen, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (Slpi), and small proline-rich protein 2d (Sprr2d) in hair follicles was identified as the likely cause of infundibular acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and cyst formation. These alterations were highly reminiscent to the phenotype of chloracne/"metabolizing acquired dioxin-induced skin hamartomas" (MADISH) patients. Indeed, SLPI, SPRR2, and epigen were strongly expressed in cysts of MADISH patients and upregulated by dioxin in human keratinocytes in an NRF2-dependent manner. These results identify novel Nrf2 activities in the pilosebaceous unit and point to a role of NRF2 in MADISH pathogenesis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24503019
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  • 7
    Keywords: carcinoma ; LIGAND ; IDENTIFICATION ; METASTASIS ; P-SELECTIN ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; TUMOR-INITIATING CELLS
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate CD24/CD44/CD47 cancer stem cell marker expressions in bladder cancer (BCa) and provide data on their prognostic significance for clinical outcome in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Primary BCa tissue was used for xenograft studies. A tissue microarray was prepared using specimens from a cohort of 132 patients. All patients underwent RC for urothelial BCa between 2001 and 2010. Expression of CD24, CD44, and CD47 was examined in primary samples and xenografts by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Populations of CD24(low)- and CD24(high)- expressing cells were sorted and evaluated for tumorigenicity in vivo. Tissue microarray was analyzed for CD24/CD44 staining intensity and tumor-specific vs. stromal cell staining. Associations with BCa survival, BCa stage, and lymph node status were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: CD24 and CD44/CD47 expressions mark distinct cell populations within the normal urothelium as well as in BCa. CD24(high/low) expression was not sufficient to characterize CD24 as a BCa-initiating marker in in vivo primary xenotransplants. CD24 and CD44 expressions correlated with lower cancer-specific survival in patients. However, multivariate analyses of CD24 or CD44 did not demonstrate significantly increased hazards for cancer-specific death if analyzed together with stage, grade, and nodal status of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer stem cell markers CD24/CD44/CD47 are differentially expressed in cells of urothelial BCa in patients undergoing RC and influence cancer-specific survival of patients. Further evaluation of CD24/CD44/CD47 protein expression could be of high therapeutic value in BCa. However, both CD24 and CD44 expressions cannot be regarded as independent prognostic parameters for patients undergoing RC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24631171
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  • 8
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; TOXICITY ; MECHANISM ; IDENTIFICATION ; RAT-LIVER METASTASIS ; RICIN-A-CHAIN ; PLANTS ; TRADITIONAL MEDICINE ; XIMENIA-AMERICANA ; RNA N-GLYCOSIDASE
    Abstract: The development of new anticancer drugs is a salient problem and the traditional use of plants is a potentially rich source of information for detecting new molecules with antineoplastic activity. Riproximin is a recently detected cytotoxic type II ribosome inactivating protein with high selectivity for certain tumor cell lines. Its activity was recognized as the main component in a plant powder used by African healers for treating cancer. By ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase gene sequencing analysis, the powder was identified to be derived from the plant Ximenia americana. The cDNA sequence of riproximin was identified, the protein was modeled to contain one A- and a B-chain, respectively, and a reliable purification procedure from kernels of X. americana was established. Riproximin displays high but differential antiproliferative activity in a panel of human and rodent cancer cell lines, with concentrations inhibiting cell proliferation by 50% (IC50 values) that diverge by a factor of 100. Consistent antineoplastic activity was detected in colorectal and pancreatic cancer liver metastasis models in rats. The cytotoxic mechanism of action was determined to be based on cellular uptake of riproximin followed by its A-chain prompted depurination of the 28S ribosomal RNA and induction of unfolded protein response. Riproximin's specificity depended on its B-chain connected binding to cell surface glycans, the presence of which is crucial for subsequent internalization into cells and cytotoxicity. These N- and O-glycans include bi- and tri-antennary NA structures (NA2/NA3) as well as Tn3 structures (clustered Tn antigen). Riproximin was found to crosslink proteins with N- and O-glycan structure, thus indicating both types of binding sites on its B chain. Due to this crosslinking ability, riproximin is expected to show prominent cytotoxicity towards cells expressing both, NA2/NA3 and clustered Tn structures. Apart from the properties of riproximin, the plant X. americana has been known for some medical uses in traditional African medicine, including various types of infections.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24699434
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  • 9
    Keywords: TOOL ; RISK ; ANTIGEN ; IDENTIFICATION ; DUAL ROLE ; TRANSLATION ; ANTIANGIOGENIC ACTIVITY ; susceptibility loci ; MICRORNA EXPRESSION ; VAMP8
    Abstract: Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy among men worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have identified 100 risk variants for prostate cancer, which can explain approximately 33% of the familial risk of the disease. We hypothesized that a comprehensive analysis of genetic variations found within the 3' untranslated region of genes predicted to affect miRNA binding (miRSNP) can identify additional prostate cancer risk variants. We investigated the association between 2,169 miRSNPs and prostate cancer risk in a large-scale analysis of 22,301 cases and 22,320 controls of European ancestry from 23 participating studies. Twenty-two miRSNPs were associated (P 〈 2.3 x 10(-5)) with risk of prostate cancer, 10 of which were within 7 genes previously not mapped by GWAS studies. Further, using miRNA mimics and reporter gene assays, we showed that miR-3162-5p has specific affinity for the KLK3 rs1058205 miRSNP T-allele, whereas miR-370 has greater affinity for the VAMP8 rs1010 miRSNP A-allele, validating their functional role. SIGNIFICANCE: Findings from this large association study suggest that a focus on miRSNPs, including functional evaluation, can identify candidate risk loci below currently accepted statistical levels of genome-wide significance. Studies of miRNAs and their interactions with SNPs could provide further insights into the mechanisms of prostate cancer risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25691096
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  • 10
    Keywords: CELLS ; IONIZING-RADIATION ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; CANCER-CELLS ; HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS ; LENTIVIRAL VECTOR ; INTRATRACHEAL INJECTION ; antioxidant enzymes ; CONFERS RADIOPROTECTION ; DIPLOID HUMAN-LYMPHOBLASTS ; NORMAL-TISSUE
    Abstract: Gene therapy-mediated overexpression of superoxide dismutases (SOD) appears to be a promising strategy for modulating radiosensitivity based on detoxification of superoxide radicals and suppression of apoptosis. Using recombinant lentiviral-based vectors, the effects of SOD overexpression on both were tested in human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6) that are sensitive to radiation-induced apoptosis. TK6 cells were transduced with vectors containing CuZnSOD, MnSOD or inverted MnSOD (MSODi) cDNA. Gene transfer efficiency, SOD activity, superoxide-radical resistance, apoptosis and clonogenic survival were determined. A six- to eightfold increase in SOD activity was observed after transduction, rendering MnSOD-overexpressing TK6 cells significantly more resistant to paraquat-induced superoxide radical production than controls. Although significant differences in sensitivity to apoptosis were observed for MnSOD, no differences in clonogenic survival after irradiation were detected between any groups. Our data show that efficient cellular SOD overexpression, an increased superoxide radical detoxifying ability and, for MnSOD, decreased apoptosis did not result in increased clonogenic survival after irradiation. This strengthens the hypothesis of differences in the radiation-modulating effects of SOD on normal and malignant cells (protective and nonprotective, respectively), thereby showing its potential to increase the therapeutic index in future clinical SOD-based radioprotection approaches.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21899432
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