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  • 1
    Keywords: CLINICAL-TRIAL ; MARKERS ; C-REACTIVE PROTEIN ; NATIONAL-HEALTH ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; METAANALYSIS ; NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY ; ENDOMETRIAL CANCER-RISK ; LIFE-STYLE INTERVENTION
    Abstract: Obese and sedentary persons have increased risk for cancer; inflammation is a hypothesized mechanism. We examined the effects of a caloric restriction weight loss diet and exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in 439 women. Overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 1-year: caloric restriction diet (goal of 10% weight loss, N = 118), aerobic exercise (225 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous activity, N = 117), combined diet + exercise (N = 117), or control (N = 87). Baseline and 1-year high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukocyte, and neutrophil levels were measured by investigators blind to group. Inflammatory biomarker changes were compared using generalized estimating equations. Models were adjusted for baseline body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, and age. Four hundred and thirty-eight (N = 1 in diet + exercise group was excluded) were analyzed. Relative to controls, hs-CRP decreased by geometric mean (95% confidence interval, P value): 0.92 mg/L (0.53-1.31, P 〈 0.001) in the diet and 0.87 mg/L (0.51-1.23, P 〈 0.0001) in the diet + exercise groups. IL-6 decreased by 0.34 pg/mL (0.13-0.55, P = 0.001) in the diet and 0.32 pg/mL (0.15-0.49, P 〈 0.001) in the diet + exercise groups. Neutrophil counts decreased by 0.31 x 10(9)/L (0.09-0.54, P = 0.006) in the diet and 0.30 x 10(9)/L (0.09-0.50, P = 0.005) in the diet + exercise groups. Diet and diet + exercise participants with 5% or more weight loss reduced inflammatory biomarkers (hs-CRP, SAA, and IL-6) compared with controls. The diet and diet + exercise groups reduced hs-CRP in all subgroups of baseline BMI, waist circumference, CRP level, and fasting glucose. Our findings indicate that a caloric restriction weight loss diet with or without exercise reduces biomarkers of inflammation in postmenopausal women, with potential clinical significance for cancer risk reduction.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22549948
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  • 2
    Keywords: CLINICAL-TRIAL ; RISK ; BREAST-CANCER ; OBESITY ; COLON-CANCER ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; metabolic syndrome ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; adipokines
    Abstract: BackgroundExcess body weight and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with the development of several diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer in women. One proposed mechanism linking obesity to chronic diseases is an alteration in adipose-derived adiponectin and leptin levels. We investigated the effects of 12-month reduced calorie, weight loss and exercise interventions on adiponectin and leptin concentrations. MethodsOverweight/obese postmenopausal women (n=439) were randomized as follows: (i) a reduced calorie, weight-loss diet (diet; N=118), (ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (exercise; N=117), (iii) a combination of a reduced calorie, weight-loss diet and moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (diet+exercise; N=117), and (iv) control (N=87). The reduced calorie diet had a 10% weight-loss goal. The exercise intervention consisted of 45min of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity 5days per week. Adiponectin and leptin levels were measured at baseline and after 12months of intervention using a radioimmunoassay. ResultsAdiponectin increased by 9.5% in the diet group and 6.6% in the diet+exercise group (both P0.0001 vs. control). Compared with controls, leptin decreased with all interventions (diet+exercise, -40.1%, P〈0.0001; diet, -27.1%, P〈0.0001; exercise, -12.7%, P=0.005). The results were not influenced by the baseline body mass index (BMI). The degree of weight loss was inversely associated with concentrations of adiponectin (diet, P-trend=0.0002; diet+exercise, P-trend=0.0005) and directly associated with leptin (diet, P-trend〈0.0001; diet+exercise, P-trend〈0.0001). ConclusionWeight loss through diet or diet+exercise increased adiponectin concentrations. Leptin concentrations decreased in all of the intervention groups, but the greatest reduction occurred with diet+exercise. Weight loss and exercise exerted some beneficial effects on chronic diseases via effects on adiponectin and leptin.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23432360
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