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  • COHORT  (12)
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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; INTERVENTION ; ASSOCIATION ; PATTERNS ; DESIGN ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; DIET ; FAT ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; ALCOHOL ; PROJECT ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; SMOKERS ; CALIBRATION ; MANAGEMENT ; physical activity ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; WEIGHT ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; LOW-CARBOHYDRATE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; dietary patterns ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; WEIGHT CHANGE ; RANDOMIZED CLINICAL-TRIAL ; Lead ; Follow up ; weight gain ; OBESE ADULTS ; PLASMA LEPTIN ; PROTEIN DIET
    Abstract: Background: Meat intake may be related to weight gain because of its high energy and fat content. Some observational studies have shown that meat consumption is positively associated with weight gain, but intervention studies have shown mixed results. Objective: Our objective was to assess the association between consumption of total meat, red meat, poultry, and processed meat and weight gain after 5 y of follow-up, on average, in the large European population who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home and Obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. Design: A total of 103,455 men and 270,348 women aged 25-70 y were recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Diet was assessed at baseline with the use of country-specific validated questionnaires. A dietary calibration study was conducted in a representative subsample of the cohort. Weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between energy from meat (kcal/d) and annual weight change (g/y) were assessed with the use of linear mixed models, controlled for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, dietary patterns, and other potential confounders. Results: Total meat consumption was positively associated with weight gain in men and women, in normal-weight and overweight subjects, and in smokers and nonsmokers. With adjustment for estimated energy intake, an increase in meat intake of 250 g/d (eg, one steak at approximate to 450 kcal) would lead to a 2-kg higher weight gain after 5 y (95% CI: 1.5, 2.7 kg). Positive associations were observed for red meat, poultry, and processed meat. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a decrease in meat consumption may improve weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 398-407
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20592131
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  • 2
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; HEALTH ; POPULATIONS ; INEQUALITIES ; DETERMINANTS ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; METAANALYSIS ; socioeconomic status ; SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS ; Educational level ; Pancreatic cancer incidence
    Abstract: Introduction: Until now, studies examining the relationship between socioeconomic status and pancreatic cancer incidence have been inconclusive. Aim: To prospectively investigate to what extent pancreatic cancer incidence varies according to educational level within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: In the EPIC study, socioeconomic status at baseline was measured using the highest level of education attained. Hazard ratios by educational level and a summary index, the relative indices of inequality (Rh), were estimated using Cox regression models stratified by age, gender, and center and adjusted for known risk factors. In addition, we conducted separate analyses by age, gender and geographical region. Results: Within the source population of 407, 944 individuals at baseline, 490 first incident primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases were identified in 9 European countries. The crude difference in risk of pancreatic cancer according to level of education was small and not statistically significant (RII = 1.14, 95% CI 0.80-1.62). Adjustment for known risk factors reduced the inequality estimates to only a small extent. In addition, no statistically significant associations were observed for age groups (adjusted RII 〈= (60) (years) = 0.85, 95% CI 0.44-1.64, adjusted RII〉 60 years = 1.18, 95% CI 0.73-1.90), gender (adjusted RIImale = 1.20, 95% CI 0.68-2.10, adjusted RIIfemale = 0.96, 95% CI 0.56-1.62) or geographical region (adjusted RIINorthern Europe = 1.14, 95% CI 0.81-1.61, adjusted RIIMiddle (Europe) = 1.72, 95% CI 0.93-3.19, adjusted RIISouthern Europe = 0.75, 95% CI 0.32-1.80). Conclusion: Despite large educational inequalities in many risk factors within the EPIC study, we found no evidence for an association between educational level and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer in this European cohort.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20829145
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; ACIDS ; OBESITY ; VALIDITY ; PROJECT ; CALIBRATION ; ADULTS ; PARTICIPANTS ; CUTOFF
    Abstract: Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344 757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5.0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5.70 (95% CI 4.35, 7.06), 2.23 (95% CI 0.16, 4.31) and 11.12 (95% CI 8.17, 14.08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1.02 (95% CI 1.01, 1.02), 1.01 (95% CI 1.00, 1.02) and 1.02 (95% CI 1.01, 1.04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over-or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95% CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22716915
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  • 4
    Keywords: COHORT ; BODY-WEIGHT ; BREAST-CANCER ; OBESITY ; PROJECT ; nutrition ; PARTICIPANTS ; survival analysis ; SUBSEQUENT CHANGES ; EPIC-PANACEA
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population. METHODS: We used lifestyle and nutritional data from 53 degrees 758 individuals followed for a median of 5.4 years from six centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to develop a risk score to predict substantial weight gain (SWG) for the next 5 years (derivation sample). Assuming linear weight gain, SWG was defined as gaining 〉/= 10% of baseline weight during follow-up. Proportional hazards models were used to identify significant predictors of SWG separately by EPIC center. Regression coefficients of predictors were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled coefficients were used to assign weights to each predictor. The risk score was calculated as a linear combination of the predictors. External validity of the score was evaluated in nine other centers of the EPIC study (validation sample). RESULTS: Our final model included age, sex, baseline weight, level of education, baseline smoking, sports activity, alcohol use, and intake of six food groups. The model's discriminatory ability measured by the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.63-0.65) in the derivation sample and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.56-0.58) in the validation sample, with variation between centers. Positive and negative predictive values for the optimal cut-off value of 〉/= 200 points were 9% and 96%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The present risk score confidently excluded a large proportion of individuals from being at any appreciable risk to develop SWG within the next 5 years. Future studies, however, may attempt to further refine the positive prediction of the score.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23874419
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; MODEL ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; incidence ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; HEART ; PATIENT ; prognosis ; REDUCTION ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; HEALTH ; AGE ; COUNTRIES ; POPULATIONS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; NETHERLANDS ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; ALCOHOL ; IMPROVES ; EPIC ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; nutrition ; FOOD ; HEART-DISEASE ; Mediterranean diet ; HETEROGENEITY ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; INTERVAL ; elderly ; prospective ; PEOPLE ; UNIT ; COMMUNITY ; myocardial infarction ; coronary heart disease ; DEATHS
    Abstract: Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of coronary heart disease, and two randomised trials indicated that it improves prognosis of coronary patients. These trials, however, relied on a total of 100 deaths and evaluated designer diets in the clinical context. We have evaluated the association of adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet, in which unsaturates were substituted for monounsaturates, with survival among elderly with previous myocardial infarction within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study. As of December 2003, after a median follow-up of 6.7 years, 2671 EPIC participants from nine countries were 60 years or older and had prevalent myocardial infarction but no stroke or cancer at enrolment, complete information on dietary intakes and important covariates and known survival status. Adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet was assessed through a 10-unit-scale. Mortality ratio in relation to modified Mediterranean diet was estimated through Cox regression controlling for possible confounding. Increased adherence to modified Mediterranean diet by two units was associated with 18% lower overall mortality rate (95% confidence interval 7-27%, fixed effects model). There was no significant heterogeneity by sex, age at enrolment, or country, although the association tended to be less evident among northern Europeans. Associations between food groups contributing to the modified Mediterranean diet and mortality were generally weak. A diet inspired by the Mediterranean pattern that can be easily adopted by Western populations is associated with substantial reduction of total mortality of coronary patients in the community
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17926134
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; COHORT ; BODY-WEIGHT ; ASSOCIATION ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; EPIC ; nutrition ; EUROPE ; LEISURE-TIME ; physical activity ; ADULTS ; REGRESSION ; WEIGHT ; fat distribution ; ADIPOSITY ; OVERWEIGHT ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; BMI ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; ENERGY-EXPENDITURE ; BODY-COMPOSITION ; INVESTIGATE ; cross-sectional analysis ; OXFORD PARTICIPANTS ; WEIGHT-GAIN
    Abstract: Objectives: Cross-sectional data suggest a strong association between low levels of physical activity and obesity. The EPIC-PANACEA ( European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating out of home And obesity) project was designed to investigate the associations between physical activity and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference based on individual data collected across nine European countries. Methods: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC), 519 931 volunteers were recruited between 1992 and 2000, of whom 405 819 had data on main variables of interest. Height, body weight and waist circumference were measured using standardized procedures. Physical activity was assessed using a validated four-category index reflecting a self-reported usual activity during work and leisure time. The associations between physical activity and BMI and waist circumference were estimated using multilevel mixed effects linear regression models, adjusted for age, total energy intake, smoking status, alcohol consumption and educational level. Results: A total of 125 629 men and 280 190 women with a mean age of 52.9 (s.d. 9.7) and 51.5 (s.d. 10.0) years, respectively were included. The mean BMI was 26.6 kg/m(2) (s.d. 3.6) in men and 25.0 kg/m(2) (s.d. 4.5) in women. Fifty percent of men and 30% of women were categorized as being active or moderately active. A one-category difference in the physical activity index was inversely associated with a difference of 0.18 kg/m(2) in the mean BMI (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.11, 0.24) and 1.04-cm (95% CI 0.82, 1.26) difference in waist circumference in men. The equivalent figures for women were 0.31 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.23, 0.38) and 0.90 cm ( 95% CI 0.71, 1.08), respectively. Conclusions: Physical activity is inversely associated with both BMI and waist circumference across nine European countries. Although we cannot interpret the association causally, our results were observed in a large and diverse cohort independently from many potential confounders
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19223851
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  • 7
    Keywords: FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; PREDICTORS ; HEALTH SURVEY ; PARTICIPATION ; SELECTION BIAS ; NONRESPONSE BIAS ; ATTRITION ; REPRESENTATIVENESS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: This paper discusses whether baseline demographic, socio-economic, health variables, length of follow-up and method of contacting the participants predict non-response to the invitation for a second assessment of lifestyle factors and body weight in the European multi-center EPIC-PANACEA study. METHODS: Over 500.000 participants from several centers in ten European countries recruited between 1992 and 2000 were contacted 2-11 years later to update data on lifestyle and body weight. Length of follow-up as well as the method of approaching differed between the collaborating study centers. Non-responders were compared with responders using multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Overall response for the second assessment was high (81.6%). Compared to postal surveys, centers where the participants completed the questionnaire by phone attained a higher response. Response was also high in centers with a short follow-up period. Non-response was higher in participants who were male (odds ratio 1.09 (confidence interval 1.07; 1.11), aged under 40 years (1.96 (1.90; 2.02), living alone (1.40 (1.37; 1.43), less educated (1.35 (1.12; 1.19), of poorer health (1.33 (1.27; 1.39), reporting an unhealthy lifestyle and who had either a low (〈18.5 kg/m2, 1.16 (1.09; 1.23)) or a high BMI (〉25, 1.08 (1.06; 1.10); especially 〉/=30 kg/m2, 1.26 (1.23; 1.29)). CONCLUSIONS: Cohort studies may enhance cohort maintenance by paying particular attention to the subgroups that are most unlikely to respond and by an active recruitment strategy using telephone interviews.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23006680
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  • 8
    Keywords: COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; INDEX ; MEASUREMENT ERROR ; VALIDITY ; CALIBRATION ; DIETARY-INTAKE MEASUREMENTS ; METAANALYSIS ; FAT INTAKE
    Abstract: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death worldwide with large geographical variation, which implies the contribution of diet and lifestyle in its etiology. We examined the association of meat and fish consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 477,202 EPIC participants from 10 European countries recruited between 1992 and 2000 were included in our analysis. Until 2008, 865 nonendocrine pancreatic cancer cases have been observed. Calibrated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using multivariable-adjusted Cox hazard regression models. The consumption of red meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.93-1.14) and processed meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.71-1.23) were not associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk. Poultry consumption tended to be associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.04-2.84); however, there was no association with fish consumption (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.92-1.62). Our results do not support the conclusion of the World Cancer Research Fund that red or processed meat consumption may possibly increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. The positive association of poultry consumption with pancreatic cancer might be a chance finding as it contradicts most previous findings.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22610753
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; COHORT ; cohort study ; DISEASE ; RISK ; IDENTIFICATION ; PATTERNS ; AGE ; WOMEN ; smoking ; DIET ; DIETARY ; ALCOHOL ; nutrition ; LIFE-STYLE ; EUROPE ; FOOD ; Mediterranean diet ; CLUSTER ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; cluster analysis ; dietary patterns ; elderly ; EUROPEANS ; GREEK POPULATION ; PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ; QUALITY INDEX
    Abstract: Overall dietary patterns have been associated with health and longevity. We used principal component (PC) and cluster analyses to identify the prevailing dietary patterns of 99 744 participants, aged 60 years or older, living in nine European countries and participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly cohort) and to examine their socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates. Two PC were identified: PC1 reflects a 'vegetable-based' diet with an emphasis on foods of plant origin, rice, pasta and other grain rather than on margarine, potatoes and non-alcoholic beverages. PC2 indicates a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diet with a preference for sweets, added fat and dairy products but not meat, alcohol, bread and eggs. PC1 was associated with a younger age, a higher level of education, physical activity, a higher BMI, a lower waist:hip ratio and never and past smoking. PC2 was associated with older age, less education, never having smoked, a lower BMI and waist:hip ratio and lower levels of physical activity. Elderly individuals in southern Europe scored positively on PC1 and about zero on PC2, whereas the elderly in northern Europe scored negatively on PC1 and variably on PC2. The results of cluster analysis were compatible with the indicated dietary patterns. 'Vegetable-based' and a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diets are prevalent among the elderly across Europe, and there is a north-south gradient regarding their dietary choices. Our study contributes to the identification of groups of elderly who are likely to have different prospects for long-term disease occurrence and survival
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16115339
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; DEATH ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; AGE ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; PARTICIPANTS ; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; ACCELEROMETRY ; HEART-RATE
    Abstract: Background: The protective effect of physical activity (PA) on abdominal adiposity is unclear. Objective: We examined whether PA independently predicted gains in body weight and abdominal adiposity. Design: In a prospective cohort study [the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)], we followed 84,511 men and 203,987 women for 5.1 y. PA was assessed by a validated questionnaire, and individuals were categorized into 4 groups (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, and active). Body weight and waist circumference were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up. We used multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models and stratified our analyses by sex with adjustments for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, educational level, total energy intake, duration of follow-up, baseline body weight, change in body weight, and waist circumference (when applicable). Results: PA significantly predicted a lower waist circumference (in cm) in men (beta = -0.045; 95% CI: -0.057, -0.034) and in women (beta = -0.035; 95% CI: -0.056, -0.015) independent of baseline body weight, baseline waist circumference, and other confounding factors. The magnitude of associations was materially unchanged after adjustment for change in body weight. PA was not significantly associated with annual weight gain (in kg) in men (beta = -0.008; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.003) and women (beta = -0.01; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.0006). The odds of becoming obese were reduced by 7% (P 〈 0.001) and 10% (P 〈 0.001) for a one-category difference in baseline PA in men and women, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a higher level of PA reduces abdominal adiposity independent of baseline and changes in body weight and is thus a useful strategy for preventing chronic diseases and premature deaths. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:826-35
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21346093
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