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  • 1
    Keywords: PROTEIN ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; PROGRESSION ; inactivation ; NEPHROPATHY ; 2 PARTS ; MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN ; VASCULAR COMPLICATIONS ; CD59
    Abstract: Coagulation and complement regulators belong to two interactive systems constituting emerging mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy. Thrombomodulin (TM) regulates both coagulation and complement activation, in part through discrete domains. TM's lectin like domain dampens complement activation, while its EGF-like domains independently enhance activation of the anti-coagulant and cytoprotective serine protease protein C (PC). A protective effect of activated PC in diabetic nephropathy is established. We hypothesised that TM controls diabetic nephropathy independent of PC through its lectin-like domain by regulating complement. Diabetic nephropathy was analysed in mice lacking TM's lectin-like domain (TMLeD/LeD) and controls (TMwt/wt). Albuminuria (290 mug/mg vs. 166 mug/mg, p=0.03) and other indices of experimental diabetic nephropathy were aggravated in diabetic TMLeD/LeD mice. Complement deposition (C3 and C5b-9) was markedly increased in glomeruli of diabetic TMLeD/LeD mice. Complement inhibition with enoxaparin ameliorated diabetic nephropathy in TMLeD/LeD mice (e.g. albuminuria 85 mug/mg vs. 290 mug/mg, p〈0.001). In vitro TM's lectin-like domain cell-autonomously prevented glucose-induced complement activation on endothelial cells and - notably - on podocytes. Podocyte injury, which was enhanced in diabetic TMLeD/LeD mice, was reduced following complement inhibition with enoxaparin. The current study identifies a novel mechanism regulating complement activation in diabetic nephropathy. TM's lectin-like domain constrains glucose-induced complement activation on endothelial cells and podocytes and ameliorates albuminuria and glomerular damage in mice.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23014597
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  • 2
    Keywords: CELL-PROLIFERATION ; MESSENGER-RNA ; FACTOR-KAPPA-B ; DIABETIC-NEPHROPATHY ; ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY ; STAGE EMBRYONIC-DEVELOPMENT ; LECTIN-LIKE DOMAIN ; COLD-SHOCK DOMAIN ; CHEMICAL ANOXIA ; TUBULAR CELLS
    Abstract: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is the leading cause of ARF. A pathophysiologic role of the coagulation system in renal IRI has been established, but the functional relevance of thrombomodulin (TM)-dependent activated protein C (aPC) generation and the intracellular targets of aPC remain undefined. Here, we investigated the role of TM-dependent aPC generation and therapeutic aPC application in a murine renal IRI model and in an in vitro hypoxia and reoxygenation (HR) model using proximal tubular cells. In renal IRI, endogenous aPC levels were reduced. Genetic or therapeutic reconstitution of aPC efficiently ameliorated renal IRI independently of its anticoagulant properties. In tubular cells, cytoprotective aPC signaling was mediated through protease activated receptor-1- and endothelial protein C receptor-dependent regulation of the cold-shock protein Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1). The mature 50 kD form of YB-1 was required for the nephro- and cytoprotective effects of aPC in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Reduction of mature YB-1 and K48-linked ubiquitination of YB-1 was prevented by aPC after renal IRI or tubular HR injury. aPC preserved the interaction of YB-1 with the deubiquitinating enzyme otubain-1 and maintained expression of otubain-1, which was required to reduce K48-linked YB-1 ubiquitination and to stabilize the 50 kD form of YB-1 after renal IRI and tubular HR injury. These data link the cyto- and nephroprotective effects of aPC with the ubiquitin-proteasome system and identify YB-1 as a novel intracellular target of aPC. These insights may provide new impetus for translational efforts aiming to restrict renal IRI.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26015455
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