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  • COLLABORATIVE REANALYSIS  (2)
  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; MODEL ; RISK ; TUMORS ; INFECTION ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia ; VALIDITY ; nutrition ; BREAST-CANCER RISK ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SERUM ; ESTROGEN ; HORMONES ; COLLABORATIVE REANALYSIS ; CONTRACEPTIVES ; INDIVIDUAL DATA
    Abstract: Background: Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC). Methods: Ninety-nine ICC cases, 121 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) cases and 2 control women matched with each case for center, age, menopausal status and blood collection-related variables, were identified in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Circulating levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E(2)); dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); progesterone (premenopausal women); and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured using immunoassays. Levels of free (f) T and E(2) were calculated from absolute concentrations of T, E(2), and SHBG. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using regularized conditional logistic regression. Results: Among premenopausal women, associations with ICC were observed for fT (OR for highest vs. lowest tertile 5.16, 95% CI, 1.50-20.1). SHBG level was associated with a significant downward trend in ICC risk. T, E(2), fE(2), and DHEAS showed nonsignificant positive association with ICC. Progesterone was uninfluential. Among postmenopausal women, associations with ICC were found for T (OR 3.14; 95% CI, 1.21-9.37), whereas E(2) and fT showed nonsignificant positive association. SHBG level was unrelated to ICC risk in postmenopausal women. No associations between any hormone and CIN3 were detected in either pre- or postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Our findings suggest for the first time that T and possibly E(2) may be involved in the etiology of ICC. Impact: The responsiveness of cervical tumors to hormone modulators is worth exploring.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21994406
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  • 2
    Keywords: THERAPY ; PATIENT ; TRIALS ; AGE ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; REQUIRING PROLONGED OBSERVATION ; RECALL ; COLLABORATIVE REANALYSIS ; SEX-HORMONES
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected women. METHODS: Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone therapy, were included in the analyses. We calculated adjusted relative risks (RRs) associated with menarche and menopause for breast cancer overall, and by tumour histology and by oestrogen receptor expression. FINDINGS: Breast cancer risk increased by a factor of 1.050 (95% CI 1.044-1.057; p〈0.0001) for every year younger at menarche, and independently by a smaller amount (1.029, 1.025-1.032; p〈0.0001), for every year older at menopause. Premenopausal women had a greater risk of breast cancer than postmenopausal women of an identical age (RR at age 45-54 years 1.43, 1.33-1.52, p〈0.001). All three of these associations were attenuated by increasing adiposity among postmenopausal women, but did not vary materially by women's year of birth, ethnic origin, childbearing history, smoking, alcohol consumption, or hormonal contraceptive use. All three associations were stronger for lobular than for ductal tumours (p〈0.006 for each comparison). The effect of menopause in women of an identical age and trends by age at menopause were stronger for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease (p〈0.01 for both comparisons). INTERPRETATION: The effects of menarche and menopause on breast cancer risk might not be acting merely by lengthening women's total number of reproductive years. Endogenous ovarian hormones are more relevant for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease and for lobular than for ductal tumours. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23084519
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