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  • Calcitonin  (1)
  • Cold  (1)
  • Morphogenesis  (1)
  • 1970-1974  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Calcitonin ; C-Cells of the thyroid and cells of the parathyroid glands ; Secondary hyperparathyroidism ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Im Verlauf ein- bis achtwöchiger Behandlung von Wistar-Ratten mit täglich 300 mMRC Einheiten Schweinecalcitonin kam es in den C-Zellen der Schilddrüse, verglichen mit denen der Kontrollserien (unbehandelte und mit Acetatpuffer allein behandelte Tiere), einerseits zu einer morphometrisch signifikanten Abahme der Zahl der Sekretgranula, während andererseits sämtliche Zellorganellen (Mitochondrie,, Golgi-Apparat und auch das granuläre endoplasmatische Reticulum) besser entwickelt waren. In den in gleichen Zeitabschnitten untersuchten Parathyroideazellen fanden wir bei mit Calcitonin behandelten Ratten Strukturveränderungen, die auf eine erhöhte Aktivität hinwiesen: Einfaltungen des Kerns, Erweiterung der Intercellularräume mit Vermehrung und Verlängerung der in diese hineinragenden Mikrovilli, bessere Ausbildung des Golgi-Apparates und des granulären endoplasmatischen Reticulums sowie eine größere Menge freier Ribosomen. Die Zahl der Sekretgranula war eindeutig höher als bei den Kontrolltieren. Der Ca ++- und Mg++-Blutspiegel zeigte während der ganzen Versuchsdauer bei allen Tieren keine statistisch faßbaren Änderungen. Die Autoren vertreten die Hypothese, daß die Aktivierung der C-Zellen durch das Auftreten eines durch die Calcitoninverabreichung hervorgerufenen sekundären Hyperparathyroidismus zustande kommt.
    Notes: Summary Male Wistar rats were injected for one to eight weeks with 300 mMRC units per day of porcine calcitonin. During this period C-cells (or “parafollicular” cells) of the thyroid gland and cells of the parathyroid glands were examined ultrastructurally. The C-cells were further studied morphometrically in animals treated with calcitonin dissolved in acetate buffer as well as in acetate buffer- and not-treated control animals. In the thyroid C cells the number of secretion granules significantly decreased following calcitonin administration, whereas the volume of all cell organelles (mitochondria, Golgi complex and granular endoplasmic reticulum) augmented. The cells of the parathyroid glands of the calcitonin-treated rats showed structural changes due to higher activity: invaginations of the nuclear envelope, enlargement of the intercellular spaces with increase in number and size of the microvilli, better development of the Golgi complex and the granular endoplasmic reticulum, larger population of free ribosomes and secretory granules. However, no significant differences in the blood calcium and magnesium levels were detected when a comparison was made of calcitonin-treated and control animals. All these observations support the hypothesis that the activation of the C-cells may result from a secondary hyperparathyroidism itself induced by the administration of moderate doses of calcitonin.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Lysosome ; Autophagy ; Phagocytosis ; Acid phosphatase ; Morphogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of the “physiological” cell death was studied in distal ventral bulbar cushions of 15 chick embryo hearts on the 4th and 5th day of incubation. Microperfusion fixation was performed. The ultracytochemistry of a lysosomal hydrolytic enzyme acid phosphatase was also investigated in another 15 embryonic hearts. In the course of the cell degeneration an increase in cellulr autophagy was observed without previous cytoplasmic or nuclear changes or phagocyte ingestion. A cytoplasmic diffusion of acid phosphatase outside of lysosomes was observed. Besides the cell death with the marked participation of the lysosomal system, another kind of dying cells was found, characterized by their nuclear pycnosis and cytoplasmic condensation. Starting from the 5th day of incubation the dying and dead cells were found phagocytized by some of their neighbouring viable mesenchymal cells. A formation of ribosomal crystals was not observed. The formation and fate of cytolysomes as well as the fate of phagocytes are discussed. The presence of pre-necrotic cells with important autophagy and of necrotic cells with nuclear changes was related to the possibility of a dual cause of the cell death. In the case of pre-necrotic cells the epigenetic factors like the biomechanic action of hemodynamics were considered, while the necrotic cells seem to be programmed to death by their genome. Finally the uniformity of cell death ultrastructure in different organs and species was noticed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Rat ; Cold ; Pineal gland ; Synaptic vesicles ; Zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide (ZIO) reaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In den synaptischen Bläschen der Nervenendigungen der Epiphyse von Ratten, welche 2 und 4 Tage einer Temperatur von −6° bis −8°C ausgesetzt worden waren, hat man eine signifikante Vermehrung des Zinkjodid-Osmiumtetroxyd (ZIO) reaktiven Materials festgestellt. Der durchschnittliche Durchmesser der ZIO-positiven synaptischen Vesiculae betrug bei den Kontrollratten 234 Å und bei den Ratten, welche 2 und 4 Tage unter der Kälte gelebt hatten, 380 Å, bzw. 379 Å. Die ZIO-Reaktion war bei den Kontrollratten in 49,3% der synaptischen Vesiculae positiv, nach zweitägiger Kälteeinwirkung waren 58,7% und nach viertägiger Kälteeinwirkung 72,1% der synaptischen Vesiculae ZIO-positiv. Auf Grund der vorliegenden Arbeit war es jedoch nicht möglich zu entscheiden, ob die Vermehrung des ZIO-reaktiven Materials mit einer gleichzeitigen Zunahme der biogenen Amine verbunden ist.
    Notes: Summary In the synaptic vesicles of pineal nerve endings of Wistar rats exposed for 2 and 4 days to a temperature of −6° to −8° C, a significant increase of the zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide (ZIO) reactive material was observed. The mean diameter of ZIO reactive synaptic vesicles of control rats was 234 Å; in rats exposed to cold for 2 and 4 days it was 380 Å, respectively 379 Å. In control rats the ZIO reaction was positive in 49,3% of the synaptic vesicles. The reactivity increased to 58,7% in rats exposed to cold for 2 days, and to 72,1% in rats exposed to cold for 4 days. However, the results of the present study do not permit to conclude if an increase of ZIO reactive material is accompanied by a simultaneuos increase of biogenic amines.
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