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  • Immunohistochemistry  (4)
  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)  (3)
  • Springer  (7)
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  • Springer  (7)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Neuronal markers ; Neuropeptides ; Immunohistochemistry ; Heart innervation ; Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The innervation and myocardial cells of the human atrial appendage were investigated by means of immunocytochemical and ultrastructural techniques using both tissue sections and whole mount preparations. A dense innervation of the myocardium, blood vessels and endocardium was revealed with antisera to general neuronal (protein gene product 9.5 and synaptophysin) and Schwann cell markers (S-100). The majority of nerve fibres possessed neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity and were found associated with myocardial cells, around small arteries and arterioles at the adventitial-medial border and forming a plexus in the endocardium. Subpopulations of nerve fibres displayed immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide. In whole-mount preparations of endocardium, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivities were found to coexist in the same varicose nerve terminals. Ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of numerous varicose terminals associated with myocardial, vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity was localised to large electron-dense secretory vesicles in nerve terminals which also contained numerous small vesicles. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity occurred exclusively in myocardial cells where it was localised to large secretory vesicles. The human atrial appendage comprises a neuroendocrine complex of peptidecontaining nerves and myocardial cells producing ANP.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ; Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) ; Merkel cells ; Free nerve endings ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-immunoreactivity were observed to coexist in Merkel cells of cats. No differences in peptide content were found between Merkel cells located in epithelia of the hard palate, in hairy and glabrous skin of the upper lip, and in vibrissae follicles. CGRP-and VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were also found near CGRP/VIP-immunoreactive Merkel cells. In the vibrissae follicles some CGRP-and VIP-immunoreactive nerve terminals end abutting on the glassy membrane. Other CGRP immunoreactive nerve fibres penetrate the epithelium of the skin and end within it. Electron microscopy of vibrissae follicles revealed that Merkel cell neuntes are not immunostained and that immunostained nerve fibres form unmyelinated bundles before ending freely. Thus, CGRP-and VIP immunoreactive nerve fibres in cat skin do not end as Merkel cell neuntes but as different kinds of free nerve endings.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Thyroid ; C Cells ; Peptides ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary C cells of thyroid are known to express a variety of products beside calcitonin. These include the peptides PDN21 (katacalcin), calcitoningene related peptide (CGRP), bombesin and somatostatin. The expression of these products has been investigated by immunohistochemistry of thyroid tissue in six age ranges from fetal to late adult life. PDN 21 was found to have co-expression with calcitonin. CGRP and bombesin both demonstrated an age-related increase in numbers and intensity of cells stained. Somatostatin immunoreactivity was limited to small numbers of cells.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Endocrine tissues ; Endocrine tumours ; Cytoskeleton ; Immunohistochemistry ; Gel-electrophoresis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The presence and distribution of intermediate filament proteins, such as cytokeratins, vimentin, neurofilament proteins and glial fibrillary acidic protein were assessed immunohistochemically in pituitary adenomas, medullary thyroid carcinomas, endocrine pancreatic tumours, gastric, intestinal and bronchial carcinoids, parathyroid adenomas, pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas and related non-neoplastic tissues. In some cases, immunohistochemical results were correlated with cytoskeletal proteins as analysed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cytokeratin antibodies with broad range of immunoreactivity (i.e. to murine liver cytokeratin component D) reacted with epithelial cells in all non-neoplastic endocrine tissues and related neuroendocrine tumours studied, except for adrenal medulla, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, independently of hormone production and biological behaviour. In contrast, antibodies to epidermis-derived cytokeratins failed to stain endocrine tissues and tumours. Paranuclear cytokeratin accumulations were seen in bronchial, gastric, and intestinal carcinoids and seem to be a common feature of neuroendocrine tumours. One-and two-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of non-neoplastic endocrine tissues and related tumours revealed two major keratin polypeptides corresponding to cytokeratins No. 8 and 18 of the cytokeratin catalog of human cells (Moll et al. 1982). According to this cytokeratin polypeptide composition, endocrine tissues and related tumours conform to the “simple type” of epithelia. Vimentin-related immunoreactivity was restricted to stromal cells and to folliculo-stellate cells in normal pituitary gland, Schwann cells in carcinoids and satellite cells in normal adrenal medulla and in pheochromocytomas. Neurofilament protein- (70 kD)-antibodies only stained nerve fibers in normal tissues and at the periphery of carcinoid tumour cell complexes, and, to a variable degree, cells in nontumorous adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Furthermore, neurofilament reactivity was observed along with cytokeratin expression in two bronchial carcinoids.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ; Autonomic innervation ; Small intestine ; Guinea-pig
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerve fibres were identified by pre-and post-embedding electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry in the guinea-pig small intestine. Immunoreactive nerve processes were numerous in the mucosa and submucosa, especially in the connective tissue among the crypts of Lieberkühn. In some cases they were found in close apposition to epithelial cells. Many of the labelled nerve fibres were observed around blood vessels, especially arterioles. In the inner circular muscle layer, the immunoreactive nerve processes were found in close association (sometimes less than 40 nm) to smooth muscle cells. CGRP-positive terminals contained a predominance of electron-lucent synaptic vesicles (35–40 nm in diameter) together with a few large granular vesicles (80–120 nm in diameter). Post-embedding immunostaining, using the immunogold procedure, localized CGRP-immunoreactivity in large granular vesicles, 80–92 nm in diameter. These ultrastructural observations confirm that CGRP-containing nerve fibres exist in the small intestine and suggest that they may participate in the regulation of the smooth muscle activity, mucosal cell secretion and blood flow and, by analogy with other systems, a sensory role also seems likely.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Neuropeptides ; Amygdala ; Immunohistochemistry ; Schizophrenia ; Huntington's chorea
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The location of the neuropeptides methionine-enkephalin (ME), neurotensin (NT), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) within the amygdaloid complex of healthy human individuals, schizophrenics and patients suffering from Huntington's chorea was studied qualitatively by means of immunohistochemistry. VIP-like immunoreactivity (IR) was present predominantly in a dense cluster of fibers and terminals in the central amygdaloid nucleus. ME-IR was observed in fibers, terminals and cell bodies in the same subnucleus, exhibiting a characteristical distribution pattern. NT-positive cell bodies were situated within the center of the central amygdaloid nucleus, fibers and terminals being encountered mainly at the periphery. NPY-IR was found to be evenly distributed throughout the amygdala. Distribution and staining intensity of ME, NPY and NT in the amygdala showed no qualitatively recognizable difference between the normal and schizophrenic specimens, whereas VIP-IR appeared to be slightly increased in the central amygdaloid nucleus of schizophrenics. In the choreic cases, the considerably shrunken amygdala exhibited only very low staining intensity of the four investigated neuropeptides.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ; Substance P ; Diabetic BB rat ; Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) ; Spinal cord
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study examined the experession of the sensory neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), in the lumbar 4 and 5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord of spontaneously diabetic BB rats and non-diabetic controls using quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. In both animal groups immunoreactivities for CGRP and SP were widely distributed within the neurons of DRG and in nerve fibres of the dorsal spinal cord. Image analysis of each neuropeptide subpopulation in the DRG showed that in diabetic rats the cell diameter of immunostained CGRP neurons was significantly decreased compared with controls, while no difference could be found for SP-immunoreactive (IR) neurons. The decrease in the CGRP-IR cell diameter appeared to occur mainly in medium to large neurons (30–50 μm diameter; 2.2% controls, 〈1% diabetes), this change being parallel to an increased frequency of small-size neurons (〈20 μm diameter) in diabetic rats (62% controls, 69% diabetes;P〈0.05). However, there was no statistical difference in the total number of cells immunostained for either CGRP or SP between control and diabetic rats. The ratio of CGRP or SP neurons compared to total cells in the ganglion was similar in control and diabetic groups. No difference could be observed for peptide immunoreactivity in the dorsal and ventral horns of either control or diabetic animals. The observed changes of perikaryal size in diabetic rats might relate to the reduced axonal calibre and conduction velocity observed in these animals, and indicate that subpopulations of sensory neurons are affected differently by diabetes.
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