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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Planta 191 (1993), S. 470-481 
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Callose ; Callose synthase ; Nicotiana ; Pollen tube ; Protease activation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Pollen-tube cell walls are unusual in that they are composed almost entirely of callose, a (1,3)-β-linked glucan with a few 6-linked branches. Regulation of callose synthesis in pollen tubes is under developmental control, and this contrasts with the deposition of callose in the walls of somatic plant cells which generally occurs only in response to wounding or stress. The callose synthase (uridine-diphosphate glucose: 1,3-β-d-glucan 3-β-d-glucosyl transferase, EC 2.4.1.34) activities of membrane preparations from cultured pollen tubes and suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana alata Link et Otto (ornamental tobacco) exhibited different kinetic and regulatory properties. Callose synthesis by membrane preparations from pollen tubes was not stimulated by Ca2+ or other divalent cations, and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics only between 0.25 mM and 6 mM uridine-diphosphate glucose (K m 1.5–2.5 mM); it was activated by β-glucosides and compatible detergents. In contrast, callose synthesis by membrane preparations from suspension-cultured cells was dependent on Ca2+, and in the presence of 2 mM Ca2+ exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics above 0.1 mM uridine-diphosphate glucose (K m 0.45 mM); it also required a β-glucoside and low levels of compatible detergent for full activity, but was rapidly inactivated at higher levels of detergent. Callose synthase activity in pollen-tube membranes increased ten fold after treatment of the membranes with trypsin in the presence of detergent, with no changes in cofactor requirements. No increase in callose synthase activity, however, was observed when membranes from suspension-cultured cells were treated with trypsin. The insoluble polymeric product of the pollen-tube enzyme was characterised as a linear (1,3)-β-d-glucan with no 6-linked glucosyl branches, and the same product was synthesised irrespective of the assay conditions employed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Key words: Callose ; Callose synthase ; Nicotiana ; Plasma membrane ; Pollen tube ; Product entrapment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The callose synthase (UDP-glucose: 1,3-β-d-glucan 3-β-d-glucosyl transferase; EC 2.4.1.34) enzyme (CalS) from pollen tubes of Nicotiana alata Link et Otto is responsible for developmentally regulated deposition of the cell wall polysaccharide callose. Membrane preparations from N. alata pollen tubes grown in liquid culture were fractionated by density-gradient centrifugation. The CalS activity sedimented to the denser regions of the gradient, approximately 1.18 g · ml−1, away from markers for Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and into fractions enriched in ATPase activity and in membranes staining with phosphotungstic acid at low pH. This suggests that pollen-tube CalS is localised in the plasma membrane. Callose synthase activity from membranes enriched by downward centrifugation was solubilised with digitonin, which gave a 3- to 4-fold increase in enzyme activity, and the solubilised activity was then enriched a further 10-fold by product entrapment. The complete procedure gave final CalS specific activities up to 1000-fold higher than those of pollen-tube homogenates. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that several polypeptides co-fractionated with CalS activity through purification, with a polypeptide of 190 kDa being enriched in product-entrapment pellets.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Key words: Callose ; Callose synthase ; Cell wall ; Nicotiana alata ; Pollen tube ; Zymogen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The callose synthase (CalS) activity of membrane preparations from cultured Nicotiana alata Link & Otto pollen tubes is increased several-fold by treatment with trypsin in the presence of digitonin, possibly due to activation of an inactive (zymogen) form of the enzyme. Active and inactive forms of CalS are also present in stylar-grown tubes. Callose deposition was first detected immediately after germination of pollen grains in liquid medium, at the rim of the germination aperture. During tube growth the 3-linked glucan backbone of callose was deposited at an increasing rate, reaching a maximum of 65 mg h−1 in tubes grown from 1 g pollen. Callose synthase activity was first detected immediately after germination, and then also increased substantially during tube growth. Trypsin caused activation of CalS throughout a 30-h time course of tube growth, but the degree of activation was higher for younger pollen tubes. Over a 10-fold range of callose deposition rates, the assayed CalS activity was sufficient to account for the rate of callose deposition without trypsin activation, implying that the form of CalS active in isolated membranes is responsible for callose deposition in intact pollen tubes. Sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation separated a lighter, intracellular membrane fraction containing only inactive CalS from a heavier, plasma-membrane fraction containing both active and inactive CalS, with younger pollen tubes containing relatively more of the inactive intracellular enzyme. The increasing rate of callose deposition during pollen-tube growth may thus be caused by the transport of inactive forms of CalS from intracellular membranes to the plasma membrane, followed by the regulated activation of these inactive forms in this final location.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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