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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (34)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae  (10)
  • 1990-1994  (44)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: maytansine ; vinblastine ; diphenylpyridazone ; colchicine ; taxol ; tubulin ; microtubule ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have investigated the effects of the microtubule poison rhazinilam on microtubule assembly in vivo and in vitro. In mammalian cells, rhazinilam mimics the effects of taxol and leads to microtubule bundles, multiple asters, and microtubule cold stability. In vitro, rhazinilam protected preassembled microtubules from cold-induced disassembly, but not from calcium ion-induced disassembly. Moreover, both at 0°C and at 37°C, rhazinilam induced the formation of anomalous tubulin assemblies (spirals). This process was prevented by maytansine and vinblastine, but not by colchicine. Preferential saturable and stoichiometric binding of radioactive rhazinilam to tubulin in spirals was observed with a dissociation constant of 5 μM. This binding was abolished in the presence of vinblastine and maytansine. In contrast, specific binding of radioactive rhazinilam to tubulin assembled in microtubules was undetectable. These results demonstrate that rhazinilam alters microtubule stability differently than taxol, and that the overall similar effects of rhazinilam and taxol on the cellular cytoskeleton are the consequence of two distinct mechanisms of action at the molecular level. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cell cycle ; Bud site selection ; Guanine exchange factor ; Ras
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) activity for Ras proteins has been associated with a conserved domain in Cdc25p, Sdc25p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other proteins recently found in other eukaryotes. We have assessed the structure-function relationships between three different members of this family in S. cerevisiae, Cdc25p, Sdc25p and Bud5p. Cdc25p controls the Ras pathway, whereas Bud5p controls bud site localization. We demonstrate that the GEF domain of Sdc25p is closely related to that of Cdc25p. We first constructed a thermosensitive allele of SDC25 by specifically altering amino acid positions known to be changed in the cdc25-1 mutation. Secondly, we constructed three chimeric genes from CDC25 and SDC25, the products of which are as active in the Ras pathway as are the wild-type proteins. In contrast, similar chimeras made between CDC25 and BUD5 lead to proteins that are inactive both in the Ras and budding control pathways. This difference in the ability of chimeric proteins to retain activity allows us to define two subclasses of structurally different GEFs: Cdc25p and Sdc25p are Ras-specific GEFs, and Bud5p is a putative GEF for the Rsr1/Bud1 Rap-like protein.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Translation ; Splicing ; Paromomycin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The MSS51 gene product has been previously shown to be involved in the splicing of the mitochondrial pre-mRNA of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX1). We show here that it is specifically required for the translation of the COX1 mRNA. Furthermore, the paromomycin-resistance mutation (P inf454 supR ) which affects the 15 S mitoribosomal RNA, interferes, directly or indirectly, with the action of the MSS51 gene product. Possible roles of the MSS51 protein on the excision of COX1 introns are discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cell cycle ; Proline ; DNA sequencing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We report here the isolation of temperature-sensitive mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which exhibit cdc phenotypes. The recessive mutations defined four complementation groups, named ore1, ore2, ore3 and ore4. At the non-permissive temperature, strains bearing these mutations arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The wild-type allele of the gene altered in ore2 mutants was cloned. The nucleotide sequence of a fragment which can complement the mutation showed the presence of an open reading frame capable of encoding a protein with 286 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 25% identity with that of the Escherichia coli Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, an enzyme of the pathway for the biosynthesis of proline. The ore2 mutants, correspondingly, were found to be capable of growing at the non-permissive temperature on a synthetic medium supplemented with proline. In addition, the chromosomal location of the gene and its restriction map were compatible with those previously reported for the PRO3 gene which encodes the S. cerevisiae Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Embryonic stem cells ; Chimeras ; Microsatellites ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: An embryonic stem cell line was established from SV129 mouse blastocysts and used to generate chimeric mice by injection into OF1 blastocysts; 18 out of the 30 resulting offspring appeared chimeric as judged from their coat color patterns, and 3 of the 13 males proved to be germ-line chimeras as they transmitted the SV129 agouti phenotype to all or part of their offspring.The degree of chimerism of these males was evaluated for different tissues using polymorphic microsatellite markers amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. It was shown that these new markers can be effectively used to quantitatively estimate levels of chimerism. The CKMM (creatine kinase, muscle) microsatellite system was used to distinguish the SV129 from the OF1 genotype. In all performed tests, the correlation between DNA ratio and signal ratio, expressed as a base 10 logarithm, was shown to exceed or equal 0.98 for known DNA ratios (SV129/OF1) ranging from 1/99 to 99/1. Linear calibration methods were used to predict the % SV129 DNA of a test sample based on the obtained signal ratio. The accuracy of the prediction was evaluated by performing repeated measurements. Differences among three repeated estimates ranged from 2 to 17% for a given sample.Microsatellite systems should be very useful to monitor chimerism involving strains that can not be discerned with coat color or biochemical markers. This will be particularly important when ES methodology becomes available in species other than mice. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: intermediate filaments ; phosphorylation ; sea urchin embryos ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) on the length of the cell cycle and on the state of phosphorylation of a putative intermediate filament protein, p117, have been studied in sea urchin embryos. Embryos were transferred into sea water containing 600 μM 6-DMAP at 0.5, 2 or 5 min after insemination, and incubated for 30 or 90 min. The effects of 6-DMAP on cell cycle length were studied by determining the time required for completion of mitosis upon return of the embryos in normal sea water. In all instances, except for the embryos transferred 0.5 min after insemination (AI) and incubated for 30 min, the duration of the M phase was shortened compared to controls, being faster in the embryos incubated for 90 minutes compared to the 30 min incubation period. However, embryos transferred 0.5 min AI have a longer M-phase than those transferred 2 minutes or later after fertilization, suggesting that between 0.5 and 2 min after fertilization, critical phosphorylating events occur which affect the commitment of the cells to enter M-phase.To study the pattern of p117 phosphorylation during the cell cycle, the eggs were transferred 2 minutes after fertilization in presence of 600 μM 6-DMAP and with 200 μCi/ml of 32P-orthophosphate. Analyses of 32P-labelled proteins after exposure of SDS-PAGE gels and their corresponding blots suggested that phosphorylation of p117 greatly increases at the time of pronuclear fusion, and then declines slightly at prophase-metaphase. This decrease is markedly enhanced when the cells are treated with 6-DMAP during metaphase in order to induce a premature breakdown of the mitotic apparatus. A causal link is suggested between the level of phosphorylation of p117 and its state of assembly. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: peptide antibodies ; protein processing ; axonemes ; microtubule associated proteins ; UV photocleavage ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Dyneins are multi-subunit enzymes that transduce chemical energy into the mechanical energy that makes cilia and flagella beat and moves organelles towards the minus end of microtubules. The ATPase activity is borne by heavy chains, and recent molecular analysis indicates that dynein heavy chain genes form an ancient multigene family: the similarity between the same isoform of two distantly related species is greater than that between different isoforms of the same species. We have exploited sequence identities between a Paramecium axonemal dynein heavy chain gene cloned in our laboratory and sequences of dynein heavy chains from other species to prepare antibodies against active-site peptides capable of recognizing dynein heavy chains regardless of species or isoform. One of the antibodies is perfectly specific for the larger product of V1 photolysis (HUV1) and thus incorporates a unique property of the hydrolytic ATP binding site of all known dynein heavy chains, the capacity for photocleavage in the presence of micromolar vanadate. Our characterization of these reagents suggests that they will be useful for biochemical and in situ studies of known dyneins as well as identification of potential new members of the family. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: centrosome ; microtubule ; microfilament ; myogenesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Available data on the molecular composition of the centrosome, the typical microtubule-organizing center of animal cells, are still fragmentary. To address this important issue we have taken advantage of centrosome isolation from a human lymphoblastic cell line (KE37) to generate a monoclonal antibody (mAb) library. Here we present the characterization of one of these mAbs (CTR56). On the basis of both its immunofluorescence staining pattern and its reactivity with a major 200 kD antigen on immunoblots, CTR56 has been tentatively classified as an anticellular myosin heavy chain. In light of cytological and biochemical data obtained in parallel with two other well-characterized myosin antibodies, it appears that myosin cannot be considered as a genuine centrosomal protein. We have resolved the paradoxical results with CTR56 by showing that in addition to the cellular myosin heavy chain, this antibody also recognizes a high molecular weight protein specifically enriched in centrosomal fractions. The possible biological significance of this finding is discussed in structural and functional terms. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubule-associated proteins ; cell cycle ; phosphorylation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Microtubule-interacting proteins have been studied in the lower eukaryote Physarum polycephalum. We show for the first time 1) the presence in Physarum amoebal crude extracts of at least six polypeptides that bind specifically to amoebal microtubules, 2) the binding between these proteins and mammalian microtubules, 3) the heat stability of two of these polypeptides (125 and 235 kDa), 4) the functional properties of a fraction containing a heat-soluble 125 kDa polypeptide, and 5) the phosphorylation of the 125 kDa polypeptide during two distinct periods of the cell cycle in Physarum synchronous plasmodia, first at late S/early G2 phase and second at late G2/prophase.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: tubulin structure ; microtubule ; antibody ; microtubule poison ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Polyclonal antibodies have been raised against the peptide 28-38 of the β-subunit of the tubulin heterodimer in order to study the accessibility of this region in the tubulin heterodimer and in various tubulin assemblies. These antibodies were specific for all β'-tubulin subunits, except for β-tubulin isotypes, and did not recognize the α-tubulin subunit. The 28-38 region does not play a role in the interaction between the α-and β-subunits since it was accessible to the antibodies on the native heterodimer. The accessibility of the antibodies was not modified by several microtubular poisons. In contrast, in all tubulin assemblies obtained in the presence of microtubule associated proteins, the region 28-38 was not available to the antibodies. These antibodies did not react with microtubules or tubulin spirals assembled either from microtubule proteins or from pure tubulin when these tubulin assemblies were probed in the absence of free tubulin after centrifugation on glass coverslips. In addition, antibodies failed to interact with the microtubule cytoskeleton in cultured Ptk2 cells indicating that the 28-38 region of β-tubulin is also protected in cellular structures. These observations suggest that the 28-38 region of the β-tubulin subunit is either located in a zone of interaction between two successive tubulin dimers within a protofilament or hidden by an allosteric conformational change which occurs during tubulin assembly. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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