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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (34)
  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (15)
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (49)
  • 1990-1994  (49)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: maytansine ; vinblastine ; diphenylpyridazone ; colchicine ; taxol ; tubulin ; microtubule ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have investigated the effects of the microtubule poison rhazinilam on microtubule assembly in vivo and in vitro. In mammalian cells, rhazinilam mimics the effects of taxol and leads to microtubule bundles, multiple asters, and microtubule cold stability. In vitro, rhazinilam protected preassembled microtubules from cold-induced disassembly, but not from calcium ion-induced disassembly. Moreover, both at 0°C and at 37°C, rhazinilam induced the formation of anomalous tubulin assemblies (spirals). This process was prevented by maytansine and vinblastine, but not by colchicine. Preferential saturable and stoichiometric binding of radioactive rhazinilam to tubulin in spirals was observed with a dissociation constant of 5 μM. This binding was abolished in the presence of vinblastine and maytansine. In contrast, specific binding of radioactive rhazinilam to tubulin assembled in microtubules was undetectable. These results demonstrate that rhazinilam alters microtubule stability differently than taxol, and that the overall similar effects of rhazinilam and taxol on the cellular cytoskeleton are the consequence of two distinct mechanisms of action at the molecular level. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In the absence of vitamin K or in the presence of the vitamin K antagonists, abnormal nonfunctional forms of prothrombin circulate in the blood. A reliable and reproducible technique, derived from traditional crossed affinoimmunoelectrophoresis in presence of calcium lactate, was developed and optimized. The technique is based on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel affinoelectrophoresis, with calcium lactate, of plasma samples, followed by immunoblotting with rabbit anti-human prothrombin serum and detection with an anti-rabbit immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugate. Depending on the plasmas, one or two bands were visualized and quantified by densitometry of the immunoblots. The technique was able detect abnormal des-gamma-carboxylated prothrombins at concentration of 0.1 μg/mL.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: lectins ; crystal structure ; lectin specificity ; mannose ; glucose ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The structure of the methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside-LOL I complex has been solved by the molecular replacement method using the refined saccharide-free LOL I coordinates as starting model. The methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside-LOL I complex was refined by simulated annealing using the program X-PLOR. The final R-factor value is 0.182 [Fo 〉 1σ(Fo)]. The isostructural methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside-LOL I complex was refined by X-Ray coupled energy minimization using the methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside-LOL I structure as a starting model to an R factor of 0.179 (all data). In both crystal forms, each dimer binds two molecules of sugar in pockets found near the calcium ions. The two saccharide moieties, which are in the C1 chair conformation, establish the same hydrogen bond pattern with the lectin. However, the van der Walls contacts are different between the O2, C2, C6, and O6 atoms of the two molecules and the backbone atoms of residues 208-211. Mannose, due to its axial C2 conformation, encloses the backbone atoms of the protein in a clamplike way. Van der Waals energy calculations suggest that this better complementarity of the mannoside molecule with the lectin could explain its higher affinity for isolectin I.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: α/β-barrels ; protein structure ; loops ; molecular modeling ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A systematic survey of seven parallel α/β barrel protein domains, based on exhaustive structural comparisons, reveals that a sizable proportion of the αβ loops in these proteins - 20 out of a total of 49 - belong to either one of two loop types previously described by Thornton and co-workers. Six loops are of the αβ1 type, with one residue between the α-helix and β-strand, and 13 are of the αβ3 type, with three residues between the helix and the strand. Protein fragments embedding the identified loops, and termed αβ connections since they contain parts of the flanking helix and strand, have been analyzed in detail revealing that each type of connection has a distinct set of conserved structural features. The orientation of the β-strand relative to the helix and loop portions is different owing to a very localized difference in backbone conformation. In αβ1 connections, the chain enters the β-strand via a residue adopting an extended conformation, while in αβ3 it does so via a residue in a near α-helical conformation. Other conserved structural features include distinct patterns of side chain orientation relative to the β-sheet surface and of main chain H-bonds in the loop and the β-strand moieties. Significant differences also occur in packing interactions of conserved hydrophobic residues situated in the last turn of the helix. Yet the α-helix surface of both types of connections adopts similar orientations relative to the barrel sheet surface. Our results suggest furthermore that conserved hydrophobic residues along the sequence of the connections, may be correlated more with specific patterns of interactions made with neighboring helices and sheet strands than with helix/strand packing within the connection itself. A number of intriguing observations are also made on the distribution of the identified αβ1 and αβ3 loops within the α/β-barrel motifs. They often occur adjacent to each other; αβ3 loops invariably involve even numbered β-strands, while αβ1 loops involve preferentially odd β-strands; all the analyzed proteins contain at least one αβ3 loop in the first half of the eightfold α/β barrel. Possible origins of all these observations, and their relevance to the stability and folding of parallel α/β barrel. Possible origins of all these observations, and their relevance to the stability and folding of parallel α/β barrel motifs are discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: X-ray structure ; TEM1 ; β-lactamase ; antibiotics ; bacterial resistance ; serine hydrolase ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The X-ray structure of Escherichia coli TEM1β-lactamase has been refined to a crystallorgphic R-factor of 16.4% for 22,510 reflections between 5.0 and 1.8 Å resolution; 199 water molecules and 1 sulphate ion were included in refinement. Except for the tips of a few solvent-exposed side chains, all protein atoms have clear electron density and refined to an average atomic temperature factor of 11 Å2. The estimated coordinates error is 0.17 Å. The substrate binding site is located at the interface of the two domains of the protein and contains 4 water molecules and the sulphate anion. One of these solvent molecules is found at hydrogen bond distance from S70 and E166. S70 and S130 are hydrogen bonded to K73 and K234, respectively. It was found that the E. coli TEM1 and Staphylococcus aureus PC1 β-lactamases crystal structures differ in the relative orientations of the two domains composing the enzymes, which result in a narrowed substrate binding cavity in the TEM1 enzyme. Local but significant differences in the vicinity of this site may explain the occurrence of TEM1 natural mutants with extended substrate specificities. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: serine carboxypeptidase ; protein modeling ; mutation analysis ; comparative modeling ; cathepsin A ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The deficiency of the lysosomal protective protein/carboxypeptidase L (CARB L) causes the lysosomal storage disorder, galactosialidosis, characterized by neuraminidase and β-galactosidase deficiencies in patients' cells. The three enzymes form a complex inside the lysosome, and the neuraminidase and β-galactosidase deficiencies are secondary to CARB L deficiency. Sequence similarity and common enzymological properties suggest that the protomeric tertiary structure of CARB L is conserved within a family of serine carboxypeptidases which includes the yeast carboxypeptidase Y, killer expression I gene product and several plant carboxypeptidases. We used this homology to build a model of the CARB L structure based on the recently published X-ray atomic coordinates of the wheat carboxypeptidase II (CPDW-II) which shares 32% primary structure identity with CARB L. Small insertions and deletions were accommodated into the model structure by energy minimization using the DREIDING II force field. The Cα atomic-coordinates of the final CARB L model have a RMS shift of 1.01 Å compared to the corresponding conserved residues in the CPDW-II template structure. The correct orientation of the homologous catalytic triad residues Ser150, His429 and Asp392, the potential energy calculations and the distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophillic residues in the structure all support the validity of the CARB L model. Most missense mutations identified in galactosialidosis patients were located in secondary structural elements except for the Tyr211→Asn mutation which is in a loop. The other mutant residues have their side chains deeply buried in the central β-sheet of the model structure except for the Phe412→Val mutation which is located in the dimer interface. The predicted effects of specific mutations on CARB L structural stability correlates well with recently published transient expression studies of mutant CARB L (Shimmoto, M. et al., J. Clin. Invest., 91:2393-2399, 1993). © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Embryonic stem cells ; Chimeras ; Microsatellites ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: An embryonic stem cell line was established from SV129 mouse blastocysts and used to generate chimeric mice by injection into OF1 blastocysts; 18 out of the 30 resulting offspring appeared chimeric as judged from their coat color patterns, and 3 of the 13 males proved to be germ-line chimeras as they transmitted the SV129 agouti phenotype to all or part of their offspring.The degree of chimerism of these males was evaluated for different tissues using polymorphic microsatellite markers amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. It was shown that these new markers can be effectively used to quantitatively estimate levels of chimerism. The CKMM (creatine kinase, muscle) microsatellite system was used to distinguish the SV129 from the OF1 genotype. In all performed tests, the correlation between DNA ratio and signal ratio, expressed as a base 10 logarithm, was shown to exceed or equal 0.98 for known DNA ratios (SV129/OF1) ranging from 1/99 to 99/1. Linear calibration methods were used to predict the % SV129 DNA of a test sample based on the obtained signal ratio. The accuracy of the prediction was evaluated by performing repeated measurements. Differences among three repeated estimates ranged from 2 to 17% for a given sample.Microsatellite systems should be very useful to monitor chimerism involving strains that can not be discerned with coat color or biochemical markers. This will be particularly important when ES methodology becomes available in species other than mice. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: intermediate filaments ; phosphorylation ; sea urchin embryos ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The effects of 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) on the length of the cell cycle and on the state of phosphorylation of a putative intermediate filament protein, p117, have been studied in sea urchin embryos. Embryos were transferred into sea water containing 600 μM 6-DMAP at 0.5, 2 or 5 min after insemination, and incubated for 30 or 90 min. The effects of 6-DMAP on cell cycle length were studied by determining the time required for completion of mitosis upon return of the embryos in normal sea water. In all instances, except for the embryos transferred 0.5 min after insemination (AI) and incubated for 30 min, the duration of the M phase was shortened compared to controls, being faster in the embryos incubated for 90 minutes compared to the 30 min incubation period. However, embryos transferred 0.5 min AI have a longer M-phase than those transferred 2 minutes or later after fertilization, suggesting that between 0.5 and 2 min after fertilization, critical phosphorylating events occur which affect the commitment of the cells to enter M-phase.To study the pattern of p117 phosphorylation during the cell cycle, the eggs were transferred 2 minutes after fertilization in presence of 600 μM 6-DMAP and with 200 μCi/ml of 32P-orthophosphate. Analyses of 32P-labelled proteins after exposure of SDS-PAGE gels and their corresponding blots suggested that phosphorylation of p117 greatly increases at the time of pronuclear fusion, and then declines slightly at prophase-metaphase. This decrease is markedly enhanced when the cells are treated with 6-DMAP during metaphase in order to induce a premature breakdown of the mitotic apparatus. A causal link is suggested between the level of phosphorylation of p117 and its state of assembly. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: peptide antibodies ; protein processing ; axonemes ; microtubule associated proteins ; UV photocleavage ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Dyneins are multi-subunit enzymes that transduce chemical energy into the mechanical energy that makes cilia and flagella beat and moves organelles towards the minus end of microtubules. The ATPase activity is borne by heavy chains, and recent molecular analysis indicates that dynein heavy chain genes form an ancient multigene family: the similarity between the same isoform of two distantly related species is greater than that between different isoforms of the same species. We have exploited sequence identities between a Paramecium axonemal dynein heavy chain gene cloned in our laboratory and sequences of dynein heavy chains from other species to prepare antibodies against active-site peptides capable of recognizing dynein heavy chains regardless of species or isoform. One of the antibodies is perfectly specific for the larger product of V1 photolysis (HUV1) and thus incorporates a unique property of the hydrolytic ATP binding site of all known dynein heavy chains, the capacity for photocleavage in the presence of micromolar vanadate. Our characterization of these reagents suggests that they will be useful for biochemical and in situ studies of known dyneins as well as identification of potential new members of the family. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: centrosome ; microtubule ; microfilament ; myogenesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Available data on the molecular composition of the centrosome, the typical microtubule-organizing center of animal cells, are still fragmentary. To address this important issue we have taken advantage of centrosome isolation from a human lymphoblastic cell line (KE37) to generate a monoclonal antibody (mAb) library. Here we present the characterization of one of these mAbs (CTR56). On the basis of both its immunofluorescence staining pattern and its reactivity with a major 200 kD antigen on immunoblots, CTR56 has been tentatively classified as an anticellular myosin heavy chain. In light of cytological and biochemical data obtained in parallel with two other well-characterized myosin antibodies, it appears that myosin cannot be considered as a genuine centrosomal protein. We have resolved the paradoxical results with CTR56 by showing that in addition to the cellular myosin heavy chain, this antibody also recognizes a high molecular weight protein specifically enriched in centrosomal fractions. The possible biological significance of this finding is discussed in structural and functional terms. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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