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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (17)
  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (2)
  • Chemistry  (2)
  • Exotoxin
  • Chemotherapy
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (19)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: antibody ; antitumor ; single chain Fv ; variable domains ; X-ray crystallography ; protein structure ; protein stability ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A recombinant Fv construct of the B1 monoclonal antibody that recognizes the LewisY-related carbohydrate epitope on human carcinoma cells has been prepared. The Fv is composed of the polypeptide chains of the VH and VL domains expressed independently and isolated as inclusion bodies. The Fv is prepared by combining and refolding equimolar amounts of guanidine chloride solubilized inclusion bodies. The Fv is stabilized by an engineered interchain disulfide bridge between residues VL100 and VH44. This construct has a similar binding affinity as that of the single-chain construct (Benhar and Pastan, Clin. Cancer Res. 1:1023-1029, 1995). The B1 disulfide-stabilized Fv (B1dsFv) crystallizes in space group P6122 with the unit cell parameters a = b = 80.1 Å, and c = 138.1 Å. The crystal structure of the B1dsFv has been determined at 2.1-Å resolution using the molecular replacement technique. The final structure has a crystallographic R-value of 0.187 with a root mean square deviation in bond distance of 0.014 Å and in bond angle of 2.74°. Comparisons of the B1dsFv structure with known structures of Fv regions of other immunoglobulin fragments shows closely related secondary and tertiary structures. The antigen combining site of B1dsFv is a deep depression 10-Å wide and 17-Å long with the walls of the depression composed of residues, many of which are tyrosines, from complementarity determining regions L1, L3, H1, H2, and H3. Model building studies indicate that the LewisY tetrasaccharide, Fuc-Gal-Nag-Fuc, can be accommodated in the antigen combining site in a manner consistent with the epitope predicted in earlier biochemical studies (Pastan, Lovelace, Gallo, Rutherford, Magnani, and Willingham, Cancer Res. 51:3781-3787, 1991). Thus, the engineered disulfide bridge appears to cause little, if any, distortion in the Fv structure, making it an effective substitute for the B1 Fab. Proteins 31:128-138, 1998. Published 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: insulin receptor ; tyrosine kinase ; pp60src ; phosphorylation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Both the insulin receptor and the gene product of the Rous sarcoma virus, pp60src, are protein kinases which phosphorylate themselves and other proteins on tyrosinc residues. Addition of the solubilized insulin receptor to purified pp60src increased the phosphorylation of the β-subunit of the insulin receptor. Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor by pp60src occurred both in the absence and presence of insulin but did not alter the insulin dose response for autophosphorylation of the receptor. Increasing concentrations of pp60src increased the phosphorylation of the receptor and at high concentrations equaled the maximal effect produced by insulin. Our observations suggest a possible mechanism by which the metabolically regulated insulin receptor tyrosine kinase could be altered by other tyrosine kinases such as that associated with pp60src. Further studies will be required to determine if the insulin receptor is phosphorylated by pp60src in Rous sarcoma virus-infected cells.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: cell transformation ; neoplastic ; receptor ; epidermal growth factor ; transforming growth factor ; oncogenes ; genetic vectors ; retrovirus ; bioassay ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Two retroviral DNAs that encode the normal human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor hEGFR have been generated by inserting a hEGFR cDNA into two different retroviral vectors. One DNA (pCO11-EGFR-neo) also contained a linked selectable marker gene (neoR). The other (pCO12-EGFR) only expresses hEGFR. When introduced into NIH3T3 cells, the two DNAs and the viruses derived from them induced a fully transformed phenotype, including focal transformation and growth in agar or low serum, but transformation depended entirely upon EGF being present in the growth medium. Compared with pCO11-EGFR-neo, pCO12-EGFR induced EGF-dependent transformation 2-5 times more efficiently and expressed higher numbers of receptors (4 × 105 vs. 1 × 105 EGF receptors per cell). The results indicate that transforming potential is directly related to the number of EGF receptors. In defined, serum-free medium that contained only very low concentrations of insulin (0.6 μg/ml) and transferrin (0.6 μg/ml), hEGFR-virus infected cells were able to grow with EGF as the only growth factor. Moreover, daily incubation of the cells with EGF for only 30 min was sufficient to induce growth. NR6 cells, which lack endogenous EGF receptors, were transformed as efficiently as NIH3T3 cells by the hEGFR virus. The dose-dependent growth response to EGF of infected NR6 cells grown in serum-free medium can be used as a highly sensitive bioassay for the quantitative assessment of EGF and transforming growth factor type α (TGFα). This bioassay is at least as sensitive as previously reported radioimmunoassays and can measure a much wider concentration range (10 pg-100 ng/ml). Uninfected NR6 cells or NR6 cells infected by helper virus alone can be used as controls for the EGF specificity of growth stimulation.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 13 (1991), S. 381-387 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Multidrug resistance resulting from expression of an energy-dependent drug efflux pump encoded by the human MDR1 gene is a major impediment to effective cancer therapy. Pharmacologic intervention aimed at inhibiting this multidrug transporter should improve existing chemotherapy of human cancer, but drug development has been delayed by the difficulty and expense of developing valid animal models. Using recombinant DNA technology, a transgenic mouse has been engineered whose bone marrow is protected from the toxic effects of chemotherapy by expression of the MDR1 gene. This animal system allows the rapid screening of drugs which inhibit the multidrug transporter and heralds a new era of using transgenic animals for pharmacologic screening.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 91 (1977), S. 289-296 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The total membrane fraction of a chick embryo fibroblast (CEF) homogenate accumulates calcium in an energy-dependent manner. This activity can be dissociated into azide-sensitive and azide-insensitive components. The azide-sensitive component of calcium uptake is believed to represent mitochondrial calcium uptake. The azide-insensitive component of calcium uptake is enhanced by the presence of a calcium trapping agent such as oxalate, and cannot utilize, ADP, inorganic phosphate and a Krebs cycle substrate to support uptake. The distribution of the azide-insensitive calcium uptake in subcellular fractions suggests that this uptake occurs in other than mitochondrial membranes. The membranes most likely to contribute to the azide-insensitive component of calcium uptake are the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. A microsomal preparation from CEF cells is essentially devoid of the azide-sensitive calcium uptake activity. This microsomal activity is similar in characteristics to the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle. However the specific activity of CEF microsomal calcium uptake system is much less than that found in the skeletal muscle system. The transport of calcium by these membranes provide a mechanism for the regulation of cytosol calcium levels and may play a role in the control of movement and growth of cultured cells.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Mutants of the human KB carcinoma cell line resistant to a cytotoxic conjugate of epidermal growth factor and Pseudomonas exotoxin (EGF-PE) express a pleiotropic phenotype, which includes reduced levels of 125I-EGF binding, without altered affinity for EGF (Lyall et al., 1987). Here, the EGF-toxin (ET) resistant mutants were further characterized with respect to the amount and size of the EGF receptor and the level of EGF receptor RNA. These data indicate that decreased binding of 125I-EGF in the mutants is due to reduced amounts of EGF receptor, which is associated with decreased mRNA levels. Changes in other proteins in the ET mutants were also examined. Five of the six ET mutants had a decrease in a 78,000 Mr- membrane glycoprotein. In addition, an increase in a protein with a Mr- of 40,000 and a pl = 8.0 was found in all the mutants, and an increase in a series of proteins with a Mr- of 36,000 and a pl of 6.3-6.5 was found in some of the mutants. These results confirm the pleiotropic nature of the EGF-PE resistant mutants and show that reduced EGF binding is due to altered expression of the EGF receptor gene in the mutants.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: H20e12 is a mutant HeLa cell line selected for resistance to the toxicity of a chimeric protein conjugate composed of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the toxic A cham of ricin (RTA). ET-28 is a mutant KB cell line selected for resistance to the toxicity of a chimeric protein conjugate composed of EGF and Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE). In this report we describe the presence or absence, in these mutants, of cross-resistance to the two toxic conjugates and the effects of ammonium chloride, leupeptin, and adenovirus cotreatments on toxin efficacies. ET-28 cells, the EGF-PE-resistant cells, are resistant to both EGF-PE and EGF-RTA. In contrast, H20e12 cells, the EGF-RTA-resistant cells, are as sensitive to EGF-PE toxicity as are their parent HeLa cells. Ammonium chloride cotreatment substantially reduces the resistance of H20e12 cells to EGF-RTA but has little or no effect on the resistance of ET-28 cells to either EGF-RTA or EGF-PE. Leupeptin has no effect on the toxicity of either chimeric conjugate on any of the four cell lines, despite its demonstrated ability to inhibit cellular degradation of EGF. In contrast, adenovirus cotreatment enhances the toxicity of EGF-RTA and EGF-PE on all cells tested, and completely nullifies the relative resistance of H20e12 and ET-28 cells to these toxic conjugates. H20e12 and ET-28 cells appear to be altered in distinct, possibly endosomal, functions.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A serum-free culture system was established for human KB carcinoma (HeLa) cells that consisted of a chemically defined medium and several growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin, transferrin, hydrocortisone, and ethanolamine. EGF and insulin showed the greatest effects on the growth rate of KB cells. Insulin-like growth factor l (IGF-l) at the same concentration as insulin stimulated cell growth less than insulin. Transferrin, hydrocortisone, or ethanolamine had no growth-stimulatory effects alone but were stimulatory when combined with EGF and/or insulin. Transforming growth factor-beta inhibited growth and triiodothyronine stimulated growth. The growth factor requirements were established for several KB mutants with low EGF receptor levels that had been selected for resistance to a conjugate of EGF with Pseudomonas exotoxin (EGF-PE). Three of five KB mutants did not respond to EGF; two other mutants responded to a lesser extent than the parental KB cells. Four mutants had a reduced response to insulin and responded to T3; one mutant (ET-30) responded to neither. These results indicate that KB cells selected for EGF-PE resistance have lost their growth response to EGF and illustrate the usefulness of serum-free medium for studying the growth factor requirements of mutants with altered receptor levels.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Pleiotropic human KB cell mutants, selected for resistance to a conjugate of epidermal growth factor with Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE-EGF), were characterized genetically. These mutants have a pleiotropic phenotype, which includes reduced number of EGF receptors and reduced growth rate. Hybrid cells between HeLa D98 and four out of five of these resistant cell lines were more resistant to PE-EGF than hybrids formed between HeLa D98 and parental KB cells. This result indicates that the phenotype of PE-EGF resistance is incompletely dominant in four out of five cases and recessive in one out of five variants. In three separate experiments, transfection of DNA from two of the dominant resistant cell lines resulted in transformation of wild-type KB cells to PE-EGF resistance, confirming the dominant nature of these mutations, which affect levels of EGF receptor in KB cells.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have previously shown that in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, a mutant cell line with a defective regulatory subunit (RI) for the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Abraham et al: Mol. Cell. Biol., 7:3098-3106, 1987), and a transfectant cell line expressing the same mutant kinase, showed increased sensitivity to a number of drugs that are known to be substrates for the multidrug transporter (P-glycoprotein). In the current study we have investigated the mechanism by which cAMP-dependent protein kinase controls drug resistance. We report here that the sensitivity of the kinase defective CHO cell lines to multiple drugs results from decreased RNA levels for the multidrug-resistance gene. Similar results were obtained with mouse Y1 adrenal cells. Wild-type Y1 cells had high levels of P-glycoprotein due to expression of both the mdr 1b and mdr2 genes, whereas the cAMP-dependent protein kinase mutant Kin 8 cells had decreased RNA levels for these genes. A Kin 8 transfectant with restored cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity recovered mdr expression, indicating a cause and effect relationship between the protein kinase mutations and mdr expression. No changes in nuclear run-off assays could be detected, suggesting a non-transcriptional mechanism of regulation. Wild-type Y1 cells are more drug sensitive despite having higher levels of P-glycoprotein than the mutant cells. This paradoxical result may be explained by the higher rate of synthesis of steroids by the wild-type Y1 cells, which appear to be inhibitors of P-glycoprotein transport activity. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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