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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (317)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (86)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: human lymphoblastoma cells ; microtubule organizing centers ; isolation centrioles ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A procedure adapted from that described by Mitchison and Kirschner [Nature 312:232-237, 1984] was used to isolate centrosomes from human lymphoid cells. High yields of homogeneous centrosomes (60% of the theoretical total, assuming one centrosome per cell) were obtained. Centrosomes were isolated as pairs of centrioles, plus their associated pericentriolar material. Ultrastructural investigation revealed: 1) a link between both centrioles in a centrosome formed by the gathering in of a unique bundle of thin filaments surrounding each centriole; 2) a stereotypic organization of the pericentriolar material, including a rim of constant width at the proximal end of each centriole and a disc of nine satellite arms organized according to a ninefold symmetry at the distal end and; 3) an axial hub in the lumen of each centriole at the distal end surrounded by some ill-defined material.The total protein content was 2 to 3 × 10-2 pg per isolated centrosome, a figure that suggests that the preparations were close to homogeneity. The protein composition was complex but specific, showing proteins ranging from 180 to 300 kD, one prominent band at 130 kD, and a group of proteins between 50 and 65 kD. Actin was also present in centrosome preparations.Functional studies demonstrated that the isolated centrosomes were competent to nucleate microtubules in vitro from purified tubulin in conditions in which spontaneous assembly could not occur. They were also very effective at inducing cleavage when microinjected into unfertilized Xenopus eggs.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: maytansine ; vinblastine ; diphenylpyridazone ; colchicine ; taxol ; tubulin ; microtubule ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have investigated the effects of the microtubule poison rhazinilam on microtubule assembly in vivo and in vitro. In mammalian cells, rhazinilam mimics the effects of taxol and leads to microtubule bundles, multiple asters, and microtubule cold stability. In vitro, rhazinilam protected preassembled microtubules from cold-induced disassembly, but not from calcium ion-induced disassembly. Moreover, both at 0°C and at 37°C, rhazinilam induced the formation of anomalous tubulin assemblies (spirals). This process was prevented by maytansine and vinblastine, but not by colchicine. Preferential saturable and stoichiometric binding of radioactive rhazinilam to tubulin in spirals was observed with a dissociation constant of 5 μM. This binding was abolished in the presence of vinblastine and maytansine. In contrast, specific binding of radioactive rhazinilam to tubulin assembled in microtubules was undetectable. These results demonstrate that rhazinilam alters microtubule stability differently than taxol, and that the overall similar effects of rhazinilam and taxol on the cellular cytoskeleton are the consequence of two distinct mechanisms of action at the molecular level. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The mastication of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) in presence of monomers causes important changes of the thermal stability of the polymer when the last one possesses a basic character (e.g., 2-vinylpyridine). The dehydrochlorination rate is greatly increased, even if the monomer is present in only small amounts. In the most cases (styrene, acrylic ester) a better thermal stability is observed with respect to the acceleration of the dehydrochlorination, which is retarded or even suppressed. Infrared spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis show that the improved stability is due to an improved crystalline organization. When mastication causes the polymerization of the monomer (methyl methacrylate), degradation of the PVC part and depolymerization of the rafted part are observed simultaneously; this fact supports a radical mechanism for the thermal degradation of the PVC.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1022-1352
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The synthesis of various fluorinated acrylates CH2=CHCOO(CH2)pCnF2n+1 and their kinetics of radical homopolymerization are presented. The fluoroacrylated monomers have been prepared in two steps by acrylation of the corresponding halogenated alcohols produced by radical addition of perfluoroalkyl iodides(CnF2n+1I) to ω-hydroxylated alkenes. The fluorinated acrylates differ from each other in the nature (branched or linear) and the length (n ranging from 1 to 8) of the fluorinated chain and in the nature of the spacer between this fluorinated chain and the ester group (p ranging from 1 to 11). The kinetics of polymerization led to the determination of kp2/kte. These values were compared with those of commercially available fluorinated acrylates and were found to depend upon both the spacer length and the nature of the fluorinated group.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0959-8103
    Keywords: polyurethane ; network formation ; metallic filler ; viscosity ; kinetics ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The addition of metallic fillers is recognized to impart improvement of acoustic properties to polyurethane-based materials used for marine applications. The system under consideration was obtained by the reaction of a triisocyanateterminated prepolymer with 1,4-butanediol, in the presence of various concentrations of lead powder. With increasing lead content, gelation time is reduced and an Einstein-type law does not apply. The kinetics of the reaction were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Deviation from the classic second order is observed for the filled systems, and the higher the lead content, the more important the deviation is, showing undoubtedly the catalytic effect of the metallic powder.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0173-2803
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Pemphigus is an intraepidermal autoimmune blistering disease of humans caused by circulating IgGs. We have investigated the binding mode and the fate of bound antibodies from Pemphigus sera (P-IgG) on guinea pig keratinocytes in suspension in order to find clues to the loss of cell adhesion in vivo (acantholysis). Flow cytometry, following indirect immunofluorescent labeling of the keratinocytes, and dead cells' staining with ethidium bromide, demonstrated the specific surface binding of P-IgG onto living keratinocytes only. This was shown with several Pernphigus sera or purified P-IgG. This technique, used with various Pemphigus sera, showed that the specific binding is increased when the serum titer is higher, and “Km” values for P-IgG were roughly and inversely correlated to the titers. Upon saturation the same average number of Pemphigus IgG sites per cell were found for the sera of different patients. Analysis of the specific binding of [125I]-P-lgC onto Percollseparated (living) keratinocytes showed the existence of two classes of sites: 2 × l06 sites/cell high-affinity sites (Kd = 1.5 × 10 -6 M total IgG) and 25 × l06 sites/cell low-affinity sites (Kd = 6 × 10-5 M total IgG). Cell sorting and flow cytometry of individual cells allowed us to correlate the light-scattering signal, the RNA content, the size and morphology, and the P-IgG binding to the cells. The results indicated that P-IgG binding is homogeneous within the living keratinocytes and increases with cell size (cell maturity). Cell-sorter analysis of cells with membrane-bound P-IgC, coupled to direct determination of P-IgC released in the medium, revealed the fate of bound P-IgG: 40-60% of the P-IgGs were released in the medium within 30 minutes at 37°C. This was accompanied and followed by a much slower, metabolic energydependent, internalization process of the membrane-bound P-IgG. The internalization has been confirmed by electron microscopy of bound P-lgC labeled with protein A-gold. Internalized IgGs were seen in the cells in coated membranous vesicles and other endocytic compartments. Similar behavior was also observed with two other membrane ligands: i.e., concanavalin A and multispecific rabbit “antisurface” antibodies.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Viscosity and preferential solvation measurements were carried out on maleic acid-ethyl- and -butyl vinyl ether alternating copolymers (MA-EVE and MA-BVE, respectively) in watermethanol and water-2-chloroethanol mixtures. The conformational transition of MA-BVE was found to be strongly related to the solvation of the polymer by 2-chloroethanol. Comparison of experimental results on MA-BVE, MA-EVE, and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) in water-2-chloroethanol mixtures indicates that the behaviour of MA-EVE is different from that of MA-BVE and PMA because it does not undergo any conformational transition.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Viscosity and preferential solvation measurements were carried out on ionized maleic acidethyl, -butyl, and -hexyl vinyl ether alternating copolymers (i-MA/EVE, i-MA/BVE, and i-MA/HVE, respectively) in water-2-chloroethanol mixtures. i-MA/EVE and i-MA/BVE are completely coiled and their preferential and absolute solvation by water and 2-chloroethanol reflects their more or less hydrophilic or hydrophobic nature. For i-MA/HVE, the viscosimetric and preferential solvation measurements suggest that, in 2-chloroethanol rich mixtures, the polymer retains a hypercoiled conformation in which an important part of the hexyl side chains are screened form contact with both componenets of the solvent mixture.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biopolymers 16 (1977), S. 2091-2104 
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Quasielastic light scattering is used to study the effect of ionic strength on the dynamic behaviour of DNA. In a first approach the spectrum of scattered light is analyzed in terms of a single relaxation process. The large difference between the observed behaviour and that expected according to a pure diffusional process reflects the contribution associated with internal modes, which increases with decreasing ionic strength. Such behaviour is better analyzed in terms of a double relaxation process by using two relaxation times, the reciprocals of which are equal to DK2 and DK2 + τi-1 (K), respectively, where τi (K) is an average value describing the set of modes observed at a given K value. Relative intensity and relaxation times, which are the more accurate parameters, were used to interpret the results. The observed increase of the relative contribution of internal modes with decreasing ionic strength is actually a relative decrease of the diffusional contribution induced by a corresponding increase of the radius of gyration RG. On the other hand, the reciprocal τi-1 (K) of the relaxation time is a linear function of K2 in the analyzed KRG range and is insensitive to ionic strength between 10-2M and 1M. These results, when discussed according to Rouse's model, lead to define for each value of τi-1 (K) a corresponding mean-squared equilibrium length 〈μi2〉 which is found to be a linear function of K-2.
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