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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Human Genetics ; Public Health ; Epidemiology ; Bioinformatics ; Biochemistry ; Biomedicine ; Human Genetics ; Epidemiology ; Biochemistry, general ; Computational Biology/Bioinformatics ; Public Health ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction -- 1. Toward new tools -- 2. Models of development -- 3. Groupoid symmetries -- 4. Epigenetic catalysis -- 5. Developmental disorders -- 6. An interim perspective -- 7. The obesity pandemic in the US -- 8. Coronary heart disease in the US. - 9. Cancer: a developmental perspective -- 10. Autoimmune disorders -- 11. Demoralization and obesity in Upper Manhattan -- 12. Death at an early age: AIDS and related mortality in New York City -- 13. Mental Disorders I: Western atomism and its culture-bound syndromes -- 14. Mental Disorders II: Psychopathology and sleep -- 15. Diabetes and Thyroid Cancer in Manhattan's Chinatown -- 16. Right-To-Work Laws and Alzheimer's Disease -- 17. Stress as an Environmental Exposure -- 18. Final Thoughts -- 19. Mathematical Appendix
    Abstract: This book describes how epigenetic context, in a large sense, affects gene expression and the development of an organism, using the asymptotic limit theorems of information theory to construct statistical models useful in data analysis. The approach allows deep understanding of how embedding context affects development. We find that epigenetic information sources act as tunable catalysts, directing ontogeny into characteristic pathways, a perspective having important implications for epigenetic epidemiology. In sum, environmental stressors can induce a broad spectrum of developmental dysfunctions, and the book explores a number of pandemic chronic diseases, using U.S. data at different scales and levels of organization. In particular, we find the legacy of slavery has been grossly compounded by accelerating industrial decline and urban decay. Individual chapters are dedicated to obesity and its sequelae, coronary heart disease, cancer, mental disorders, autoimmune dysfunction, Alzheimer’s disease, and other conditions. Developmental disorders are driven by environmental factors channeled by historical trajectory and are unlikely to respond to medical interventions at the population level in the face of persistent individual and community stress. Drugs powerful enough to affect deleterious epigenetic programming will likely have side effects leading to shortened lifespan. Addressing chronic conditions and developmental disorders requires significant large-scale changes in public policy and resource allocation
    Pages: XIII, 344 p. 52 illus. : online resource.
    Edition: 2nd ed. 2017.
    ISBN: 9783319480787
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  • 2
    Keywords: Medicine ; Human Genetics ; Public Health ; Epidemiology ; Bioinformatics ; Biomedicine ; Human Genetics ; Computational Biology/Bioinformatics ; Public Health/Gesundheitswesen ; Epidemiology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9781441914828
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  • 3
    Keywords: Popular works ; Gene Expression ; Evolutionary Biology ; Medicine ; Health ; Popular Science ; Popular Life Sciences ; Evolutionary Biology ; Popular Science in Medicine and Health ; Gene Expression ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Part I: The Novel -- Part II: The Science behind the fiction
    Abstract: Genetics professor Michelle Murphy loses her husband under mysterious circumstances and without warning, while their brilliant eight-year-old daughter Avalon, adopted in Kazakhstan, stubbornly believes she is a mutant. As if this were not enough, she soon finds herself thrown into the middle of a quickly thickening plot, where the legacy of Genghis Khan meets the hunt for FOXP5, a genetic transcription factor that could herald the dawn of new human species. Initially caught helplessly between well-meaning fellow scientists, the government, and more sinister agents, Michelle eventually takes control with the help of a host of unlikely heroes and finds the courage to confront the decision of whether to save human lives or humanity. The scientific and technical aspects underlying the plot – in particular aspects of FOX proteins, genetic mutations, viruses, and cancer as well as the relation between intelligence and cortical complexity – are introduced and discussed by the authors in an extensive, non-technical appendix. Science writer Wallace Kaufman’s work has appeared in major magazines and newspapers in the U.S., England, and Kazakhstan. After Duke University he earned an M.Litt. from Oxford. His writing has taken him to Central and South America, to European Russia and the coasts of Siberia. He worked in most of Central Asia and served as resident adviser on housing and land reform in Kazakhstan. His books include Invasive Plants: Guide to Identification and the Impacts and Control of Common North American Species (2nd edition, 2013), Coming Out of the Woods - A Memoir (2001), No Turning Back (1994), and The Beaches Are Moving: The Drowning of America's Shoreline, (1979/1983). David Deamer is a Research Professor of Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He recently published First Life: Discovering the Connections between Stars, Cells, and How Life Began (2011). Deamer's research concerns molecular self-assembly processes related to the origin and evolution of membrane structure. Over the past 25 years, he has been engaged in developing nanoscopic pores in lipid bilayers as a way to sequence DNA. This work came to fruition in 2015 when the first portable nanopore sequencing device was successfully tested by early users
    Pages: VII, 251 p. 1 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319289618
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  • 4
    Keywords: Otorhinolaryngology ; Neurosciences ; Otorhinolaryngology ; Neurosciences ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Visual Influence on Auditory Perception -- Cue Combination Within a Bayesian Framework -- Toward a Model of Auditory-Visual Speech Intelligibility -- An Object-Based Interpretation of Audiovisual Processing -- Hearing in a “Moving” Visual World: Coordinate Transformations Along the Auditory Pathway -- Multisensory Processing in the Auditory Cortex -- Audiovisual Integration in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex -- Using Multisensory Integration to Understand the Human Auditory Cortex -- Combining Voice and Face Content in the Primate Temporal Lobe -- Neural Network Dynamics and Audiovisual Integration -- Cross-Modal Learning in the Auditory System -- Multisensory Processing Differences in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Abstract: Auditory behavior, perception, and cognition are all shaped by information from other sensory systems. This volume examines this multi-sensory view of auditory function at levels of analysis ranging from the single neuron to neuroimaging in human clinical populations. Visual Influence on Auditory Perception Adrian K.C. Lee and Mark T. Wallace Cue Combination within a Bayesian Framework David Alais and David Burr Toward a Model of Auditory-Visual Speech Intelligibility Ken W. Grant and Joshua G. W. Bernstein An Object-based Interpretation of Audiovisual Processing Adrian K.C. Lee, Ross K. Maddox, and Jennifer K. Bizley Hearing in a “Moving” Visual World: Coordinate Transformations Along the Auditory Pathway Shawn M. Willett, Jennifer M. Groh, Ross K. Maddox Multisensory Processing in the Auditory Cortex Andrew J. King, Amy Hammond-Kenny, Fernando R. Nodal Audiovisual Integration in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex Bethany Plakke and Lizabeth M. Romanski Using Multisensory Integration to Understand Human Auditory Cortex Michael S. Beauchamp Combining Voice and Face Content in the Primate Temporal Lobe Catherine Perrodin and Christopher I. Petkov Neural Network Dynamics and Audiovisual Integration Julian Keil and Daniel Senkowski Cross-Modal Learning in the Auditory System Patrick Bruns and Brigitte Röder Multisensory Processing Differences in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Sarah H. Baum Miller, Mark T. Wallace Adrian K.C. Lee is Associate Professor in the Department of Speech & Hearing Sciences and the Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle Mark T. Wallace is the Louise B McGavock Endowed Chair and Professor in the Departments of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Psychiatry, Psychology and Director of the Vanderbilt Brain Institute at Vanderbilt University, Nashville Allison B. Coffin is Associate Professor in the Department of Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience at Washington State University, Vancouver, WA Arthur N. Popper is Professor Emeritus and research professor in the Department of Biology at the University of Maryland, College Park Richard R. Fay is Distinguished Research Professor of Psychology at Loyola University, Chicago
    Pages: XVI, 272 p. 70 illus., 49 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783030104610
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  • 5
    Unknown
    Dordrecht : Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Science (General) ; Agriculture ; Endangered ecosystems ; Environmental management ; Development Economics ; Life sciences ; Agriculture ; Environmental management ; Ecosystems ; Science, general ; Development Economics ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9789400714120
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  • 6
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Human Genetics ; Psychiatry ; Systems Biology ; Life sciences ; Systems Biology ; Human Genetics ; Psychiatry ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Consciousness, Crosstalk, and the Mereological Fallacy -- A Cognitive Paradigm for Gene Expression -- Western Atomism and its Culture-Bound Syndromes -- Environmental Induction of Neurodevelopmental Disorders -- Sleep, Psychopathology and Culture -- Embodied cognition and its disorders -- Tools for the Future: Hidden Symmetries -- Psychopathologies of automata I: autonomous vehicle systems -- Psychopathologies of automata II: autonomous weapons and centaur systems -- The dynamics of environmental insult -- Social psychopathology: military doctrine and the madness of crowds -- Mathematical Appendix -- Index
    Abstract: This book explores mental disorders from a uniquely evolutionary perspective. Although there have been many attempts to mathematically model neural processes and, to some extent, their dysfunction, there is very little literature that models mental function within a sociocultural, socioeconomic, and environmental context. Addressing this gap in the extant literature, this book explores essential aspects of mental disorders, recognizing the ubiquitous role played by the exaptation of crosstalk between cognitive modules at many different scales and levels of organization, the missing heritability of complex diseases, and cultural epigenetics. Further, it introduces readers to valuable control theory tools that permit the exploration of the environmental induction of neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as the study of the synergism between culture, psychopathology and sleep disorders, offering a distinctively unique resource
    Pages: XII, 236 p. 31 illus. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319539102
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Embryo banking ; Vitrification ; Genotype effects ; Inbred strains ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We examined possible genotype effects on the survival of 8- to 16-cell mouse embryos isolated from four inbred strains (C57BL/6N, BALB/cAnN, DBA/2N, and C3H/HeN), a outbred stock (ICR), and various crosses after cryopreservation by vitrification or conventional slow freezing using glycerol solutions. The rates of in vitro development of C57BL/6N, BALB/cAnN, C3H/HeN, and ICR embryos to expanded blastocysts ranged from 86% to 94% after slow freezing and 85% to 97% after vitrification. The cryopreservation method did not significantly influence in vitro embryo survival after thawing (P 〉0.05). Although genotype significantly influenced the in vitro survival of embryos (P = 0.008), this presumably resulted from an increased difficulty in assessing the quality grade of C3H/HeN embryos prior to cryopreservation. The rates in vivo development of C57BL/6N, BALB/cAnN, C3H/HeN, DBA/2N, and ICR embryos to normal day 18-19 fetuses ranged from 19% to 64% after slow freezing and from 18% to 63% after vitrification. The in vivo development of cryopreserved embryos was significantly influenced by cryopreservation method and genotype (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001, respectively). Vitrification yielded significantly higher rates of in vivo development than that after slow freezing (P 〉 0.05). In vivo development rates of DBA/2N and ICR♀ X B6D2F1 ♂ embryos after cryopreservation were significantly higher than that of embryos from BALB/cAnN and C3H/HeN mice (P 〈 0.05). These results indicate that parental genotype exerts little or no effect on the ability of embryos to develop in vitro after vitrification or slow freezing. Differences in the ability of cryopreserved embryos to develop normally in vivo may reflect inherent genotype related differences in their post-implantation developmental potential and not their sensitivity to cryoinjury. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: intermediate filaments ; vimentin ; myogenesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Desmin and vimentin are two type III intermediate filament (IF) proteins, which can be phosphorylated in vitro by cAMP-dependent kinase (kinase A) and protein kinase C, and the in vitro phosphorylation of these proteins appears to favor the disassembled state. The sites of phosphorylation for desmin and vimentin have been mapped to their amino-terminal headpiece domains; in chicken smooth muscle desmin the most kinase A-reactive residues are ser-29 and ser-35. In this study we have examined the phosphorylation of desmin by the catalytic subunit of kinase A by using anti-peptide antibodies directed against residues 26-36. The antibodies, which we call anti-D26, recognize both native and denatured desmin and can discriminate between intact desmin and those derivatives that do not possess residues 26-36. Pre-incubation of desmin with affinity purified anti-D26 blocks total kinase A catalyzed incorporation of 32P into desmin by 75-80%. When antibody-treated IFs are subjected to phosphorylation, no filament breakdown is observed after 3 hours. Thus anti-D26 antibodies block phosphorylation of IF in vitro. We have also explored the role of desmin phosphorylation in skeletal muscle cell differentiation using these antibodies. Quail embryo cells, induced to differentiate along the myogenic pathway by infection with avian SKV retroviruses expressing the ski oncogene, were microinjected with affinity purified anti-D26 at the mononucleated, myoblast stage. By 24 h post-injection, the vast majority of uninjected cells had fused into multinucleated myotubes, but all microinjected cells were arrested in the process of incorporating into myotubes and remained mononucleated. This observation suggests that kinase A phosphorylation-induced dynamic behavior of the desmin/vimentin IF cytoskeleton may be one of the many cytoskeletal restructuring events that must take place during myoblast fusion.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: intermediate filament proteins ; vimentin ; domain function ; filament assembly ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Although the head and rod domains of intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known to play significant roles in filament assembly, the role of the tail domain in this function is unclear and the available information supports contradictory conclusions. We examined this question by comparing transfection of the same cDNA constructs, encoding vimentins with modified tail domains, into cell lines that do and do not contain endogenous IF proteins. By this approach, we were able to distinguish between the ability of a mutant IF protein to initiate assembly de novo, from that of incorporating into existing filament networks. Vimentins with modifications at or near a highly conserved tripeptide, arg-asp-gly (RDG), of the tail domain incorporated into existing IF networks in vimentin-expressing (vim+) cells, but were assembly-incompetent in cells that did not express IF proteins (vim-). The failure of the RDG mutant vimentins to assemble into filament arrays in vim- cells was reversible by re-introducing a wild-type vimentin cDNA, whereupon both wild-type and mutant vimentins coassembled into one and the same IF network. We conclude that the function of the tail domain of type III IF proteins, and possibly of keratins K8 and K18, in IF assembly is distinct from those of other domains; a region encompassing the RDG tripeptide appears to be important in the assembly process. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Ovary ; Vitellogenesis ; Follicle ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: Oogenesis, the early events of primary oocyte growth (meiotic arrest, synapsis, ribosomal gene duplication), and folliculogenesis can be seen to particular advantage in the germinal ridge of the syngnathan ovary. After budding off the germinal ridge (a compartment of the luminal epithelium), nascent follicles then enter into a linear array of developing follicles within which temporal and stage-specific events can be correlated with spatial distribution. Prominent features of the later phase of primary oocyte growth include intense transcriptional activity and the formation and subsequent dispersal of the Balbiani vitelline body (mitochondrial cloud) concomitant with an increase in cytoplasmic organelles and volume. Further oocyte growth is characterized by a period of cortical alveolus (in teleosts) or cortical granule (in anurans) formation, in which Golgi elements play a predominant role, and finally vitellogenesis. The latter process, which is responsible for the preponderance of oocyte growth, includes the hepatic synthesis and secretion of vitellogenin (VTG), the uptake of VTG from the bloodstream into the oocyte by receptor-mediated endocytosis, and the transport of VTG via endosomes and multivesicular bodies to forming yolk platelets. In the process, VTG is proteolytically cleaved into the yolk proteins, which assume either a monoclinic (in cyclostomes) or orthorhombic (in teleosts and amphibians) crystalline array. Other structures associated with the growing oocyte are also briefly discussed, including nuage, the vitelline envelope, intercellular junctions between the oocyte and overlying follicle cells, pigment, intramitochondrial crystals in ranidae, and annulate lamellae.
    Additional Material: 20 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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