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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 154 (1993), S. 80-91 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: To more closely examine the role of the cell surface in transmembrane signal transduction in human neutrophils, sealed right-side-membrane vesicles free of organellar membrane components were used as models of the plasma membrane. These vesicles, incubated with a fluorescent analogue of the chemotactic peptide fMLP, bound this ligand similarly in extent and kinetics to intact neutrophils. Vesicles responded to this stimulation with a slow increase in internal [Ca++] which was inhibited by EGTA but not by verapamil; the cytosolic Ca++ transient seen in intact cells within 10 sec of stimulation was absent in vesicles. The vesicles also maintained a transmembrane potential (ψ) and were depolarized by the K+ ionophore valinomycin. However, unlike intact cells which hyperpolarized and then depolarized in response to fMLP, the vesicles demonstrated only a sustained hyperpolarization. Vesicles also differed from intact cells by not producing superoxide (O2-) in response to fMLP. Finally, fMLP caused dramatic alterations in membrane vesicle lipid metabolism: at early time points (within 5-10 sec), there was a transient production of diacylglycerol (DAG) concomitant with inositol lipid breakdown, with no apparent hydrolysis of non-inositol phospholipids. For up to 5 min after stimulation, there was no increase in the levels of phosphatidic acid or of inositol lipids. Thus, a significant portion of the signalling pathway in neutrophils is located at the cell surface or in the plasma membrane and functions independently of intracellular components. Furthermore, the plasma membrane is intimately involved in events occurring during both the early (DAG generation) and late (slow, prolonged rise in [Ca++]) phases of cellular response. In contrast, several of the responses to fMLP (the Ca++ transient, depolarization, generation of O2-, recycling of lipid metabolites) involve signalling machinery not constitutively resident on the neutrophil surface. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Changes in the packing of phospholipids in the plasma membrane of lymphocytes occur during differentiation within primary and secondary lymphoid organs. As they differentiate, lymphocytes interact with a variety of reticuloendothelial cells, including macrophages. To investigate a possible relation between these two phenomena, the strength of the interactions between lymphocytes and macrophages was measured in vitro as a function of the tightness of packing of phospholipids on the lymphocyte surface. Strength of adherence was measured by the ability of lymphocytes to remain adherent to macrophages when subjected to increasing centrifugal forces. Phospholipid packing was assessed using the fluorescent lipophilic probe merocyanine 540 (MC540), which preferentially binds to bilayers in which the lipids are more loosely packed. Three subpopulations of murine thymocytes were resolved with respect to strength of adherence to peritoneal or thymic macrophages. To determine whether these subpopulations corresponded with the three classes of cells distinguishable by MC540 fluorescence, populations enriched for staining or non-staining cells, and cells sorted on the basis of MC540 fluorescence intensity, were examined. The least fluorescent cells were the least strongly adherent; the most fluorescent cells were the most strongly adherent; and cells of intermediate fluorescence had intermediate adherence. When splenic lymphocytes were examined with respect to adherence to peritoneal or splenic macrophages, similar patterns of fluorescence and adherence were seen. These results suggest that the organization of the plasma membrane lipid bilayer of lymphocytes may be involved in their interactions with macrophages during primary and secondary differentiation. The adherence signal for lymphocytes thus may be similar to that proposed for other blood cells.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Extracellular ATP elicits transient elevation of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in osteoblasts through interaction with more than one subtype of cell surface P2-purinoceptor. Elevation of [Ca2+]i arises, at least in part, by release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. In the present study, we investigated the possible roles of protein kinase C (PKC) in regulating these signaling pathways. [Ca2+]i of indo-1-loaded UMR-106 osteoblastic cells was monitored by spectrofluorimetry. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, ATP (100 μM) induced transient elevation of [Ca2+]i to a peak 57 ± 7 nM above basal levels (31 ± 2 nM, means ± S. E. M., n = 25). Exposure of cells to the PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoyl-β-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA, 100 nM) for 2 min significantly reduced the amplitude of the ATP response to 13 ± 4 nM (n = 11), without altering basal [Ca2+]i. Inhibition was half-maximal at approximately 1 nM TPA. The Ca2+ response to ATP was also inhibited by the PKC activators 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol or 4β-phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate, but not by the control compounds 4α-phorbol or 4α-phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate. Furthermore, exposure of cells to the protein kinase inhibitors H-7 or staurosporine for 10 min significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of TPA. However, these protein kinase inhibitors did not prolong the [Ca2+]i response to ATP alone, indicating that activation of PKC does not account for the transient nature of this response. When the effects of other nucleotides were examined, TPA was found to cause significantly greater inhibition of the response to the P2Y-receptor agonists, ADP and 2-methylthioATP, than the response to the P2U-receptor agonist, UTP. These data indicate that activation of PKC selectively inhibits the P2Y signaling pathway in osteoblastic cells. In vivo, endocrine or paracrine factors, acting through PKC, may regulate the responsiveness of osteoblasts to extracellular nucleotides. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 118 (1984), S. 287-290 
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The impact of hypoxic exposure on the activities of all 11 glycolytic enzymes was studied in cell culture into mammalian cells - mouse lung macrophages and L8 rat skeletal muscle cells. During hypoxic exposure, the measured activity of all glycolytic enzymes increased, establishing coordinate regulation. Three nonglycolytic cytoplasmic enzymes showed no change in activity under the same conditions, suggesting a specific mechanism. Hypoxia appears to increase the activities of all glycolytic enzymes whether rate-limiting or not, presumably increasing adenosine triphosphate availability despite decreased O2 supply.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The fluorescent probe merocyanine 540, which binds preferentially to bilayers in which the lipids are loosely packed, was used to investigate changes in the organization of the lipids of the lymphocyte plasma membrane during primary and secondary lymphopoiesis. When mouse thymocytes were incubated with the dye, most immature cells stained, while most mature cells, about to enter the peripheral circulation, did not. Similarly, mature lymphocytes from both mouse and human peripheral blood did not stain, but these same cells did when activated by in vitro mitogenic stimulation. Freshly isolated splenic lymphocytes, presumably activated in vivo by antigen, also bound merocyanine 540, but after 48 hours of culture in the absence of stimulus they displayed only a low affinity for the dye, a phenotype that reverted to a high affinity upon mitogenic stimulation. These results suggest that changes in the organization of the lipids of the plasma membrane take place during lymphocyte differentiation: viz., immature cells possess a disordered membrane that becomes increasingly ordered as the cells mature and enter the peripheral circulation; then, upon antigen-induced differentiation, the plasma membrane again becomes disordered. These lipid organization changes are discussed in the context of their possible role in the regulation of lymphocyte circulation via intercellular interactions between lymphocytes and cells of the reticuloendothelial system.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: It would be advantageous to prepare models of the neutrophil plasma membrane in order to examine the role of the plasma membrane in transmembrane signal transduction in the human neutrophil and to dissect ligand-receptor interactions and structural changes in the cell surface upon stimulation. A number of investigators have prepared neutrophil membrane vesicles by homogenization, sonication, or centrifugation-techniques that can result in the loss of substantial amounts of surface membrane material, disruption of lysosomes causing proteolysis of membrane proteins, and contamination of the plasma membrane fraction by internal membranes. These limitations have been overcome in the present studies by employing a modification of the method previously developed in this laboratory. Human neutrophils were suspended in a buffer simulating cytoplasmic ionic and osmotic conditions and disrupted by nitrogen cavitation. The resultant cavitate was freed of undisrupted cells and nuclei and then centrifuged through discontinuous isotonic/isoosmotic Percoll gradients, which resolved four fractions: α (intact azurophilic granules), β (intact specific granules), γ (membrane vesicles), and δ (cytosol). The γ fraction was highly enriched in alkaline phosphatase, a marker of the plasma membrane. In addition, this fraction contained 〈5% of the amounts of lysosomes (indicated by lysozyme activity) and nuclei (indicated by DNA content) found in intact cells or in unfractionated cavitate. Furthermore, the γ fraction contained 〈10% of the levels of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, mitochondrial, and lysosomal membranes in cells or cavitates, as determined by assays for glucose 6-phosphatase, galactosyl transferase, monoamine oxidase, and Mo1 (CD11b/CD18; Mac-1), respectively. Finally, 75% of the membrane vesicles were sealed, as indicated by assay of ouabain-sensitive (Na+, K+) ATPase activity, and 55% were oriented right-side-out, as determined by exposure of concanavalin A (ConA) receptors and sialic acid residues on the surfaces of the vesicles. These heterogeneous preparations could be enriched for right-side-out vesicles by their selective adherence to ConA-coated plates and subsequent detachment by rinsing the surfaces of the plates with α-methylman-noside. This enrichment protocol did not affect the integrity of the vesicles and resulted in populations in which 〉85% of the vesicles were oriented right-sideout. This procedure thus permits the preparation of sealed, right-side-out membrane vesicles that may be used as valid experimental models of the neutrophil plasma membrane in a variety of functional studies.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Early cellular and molecular events in inflamed skin include the active participation of epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) and dermal mast cells which can produce diffusible mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), histamine, and urocanic acid (UCA). Rapid induction of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by KCs is observed following a highly diverse array of stimuli which can provoke both irritant, inflammatory, as well as allergic and immune reactions. To determine if the aforementioned mediators could interact in either an additive or synergistic fashion with each other, cultured KCs were exposed to these mediators alone and in combination, and the degree of ICAM-1 mRNA and protein quantitated. Whereas histamine or cis-UCA alone only weakly induced KC ICAM-1, when they were combined with TNF-α, significant augmentation was observed by Northern blot hybridization studies, immunostaining, and FACS analysis. Other histamine derivatives such as L-histidine, 1-methylhistidine, 3-methylhistidine, or all-trans-UCA had no effect. Histamine pretreatment did not affect cell surface high affinity TNF-α receptors, as determined by ligand binding and immunodetection, and did not induce KC TNF-α production. The KC histamine receptor was also characterized and found not to be influenced by TNF-α, cis-UCA, all-trans-UCA, or diphenyhydramine (an H1 antagonist), but it was inhibited by cimetidine (an H2 antagonist). These results demonstrate that 1) KCs can be induced to express ICAM-1 by exposure to histamine and cis-UCA, 2) histamine and cis-UCA can also augment TNF-α inducible ICAM-1 mRNA and cell surface protein expression, 3) this augmentation does not directly involve changes in KC TNF-α receptor number, affinity, or TNF-α production and, 4) KCs possess a type 2 histamine receptor which is not the photoreceptor for UCA. These findings highlight the potential for cross-talk between molecules produced by resident cutaneous cell types above (i.e., KCs) and below (i.e., mast cells) the epidermal basement membrane zone. These cells and their mediators can cooperate to respond to either exogenous or endogenous stimuli leading to rapid and strong KC ICAM-1 expression. Such induction of this important adhesion molecule by KCs ensures the retention of T lymphocytes necessary to participate in the maintenance of cutaneous immunohomeostasis. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: RNA molecules which are restricted to the nucleus in mouse L-cells were characterized by the technique of RNA/DNA hybridization. Competition of cytoplasmic RNA with labeled nuclear RNA of various sizes revealed that the RNA restricted to the cell nucleus is heterogeneous in size. Competition for sites on fractions of mouse DNA of various base compositions indicated that this unstable RNA is also heterogeneous in base composition. Fractionation of nuclei into three subfractions failed to separate the uniquely nuclear RNA from the precursors of cytoplasmic RNA. The significance of the selective transport of RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and its importance in the control of gene activity in eucaryotic cells is discussed.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The link between the epidermal keratinocytes of the skin and the activated T lymphocytes of the immune system is mediated by a variety of cytokines, including gamma interferon (IFN-γ). We studied the influence of keratinocyte mitogens such as transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and somatomedin-C (SM-C) on the ligand binding of 32P-labelled IFN-γ to cultured keratinocytes derived from normal appearing adult human skin. Keratinocytes placed in a medium devoid of mitogens become growth arrested, and these quiescent cells expressed 2.4 times (28,900 versus 12,200 sites/cell) as many high affinity IFN-γ receptors (Kd = 0.22 nM) compared to keratinocytes which were actively growing in medium containing TGF-α (25 ng/ml) or EGF (10 ng/ml). The reduction in IFN-γ receptor sites by TGF-α/EGF was mitogen specific, as adding SM-C (500 ng/ml) did not have any effect on ligand binding, although it similarily stimulated keratinocyte growth. The reduction in IFN-γ receptors was time dependent, occurring primarily after 24-48 hours of change in tissue culture conditions. The reduction in the number of high affinity IFN-γ receptors by TGF-α/EGF had immunobiological consequences, because quiescent keratinocytes in basal medium had an increased expression of HLA-DR and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) induced by IFN-γ, compared to actively growing TGF-α/EGF treated keratinocytes. These results suggest that rapidly proliferating keratinocytes exposed to TGF-α/EGF but not SM-C are capable of altering their response to IFN-γ by decreasing their number of cell surface high affinity receptors for IFN-γ.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: cell separation ; spermatogenesis ; RNA isolation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The use of a self-contained unit-gravity cell separation apparatus for separation of populations of mouse testicular cells is described. The apparatus, a Celsep™, maximizes the unit area over which sedimentation occurs, reduces the amount of separation medium employed, and is quite reproducible. Cells thus isolated have been good sources for isolation of DNA, and notably, high molecular weight RNA.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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