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  • 1
    ISSN: 1058-8388
    Keywords: Collagens ; Extracellular matrix ; Heart ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We present new evidence of the temporal and spatial expression of type II collagen in the embryonic chick heart during the very early stages of its development. In particular, we emphasize the distribution of its mRNA and protein during valve formation. Type II collagen as well as several other fibrillar collagens (types I, III, and V) are present in stage 18 endocardial cushion mesenchymal cells. At stage 23, α1(II) collagen transcripts and the cognate polypeptide co-localize in the atrioventricular valves. As development proceeds, the relative abundance of α1(II) collagen transcripts decreases during the stages studied (stages 22 to 45; day 3.5 to day 19) as assayed by RNA blotting of extracts of whole hearts. Type II collagen protein was immunologically undetectable in stage 38 (day 12) hearts, although collagens I, III, and V persisted and localize in the valve regions, in the endothelial lining of the heart, and in the epicardium. In keeping with other observations of type II collagen expression in non-chondrogenic regions of a variety of vertebrate embryos, the avian heart also exhibits transient type II collagen expression. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Several surfperches (Embiotocidae), including the black surfperch, Embiotoca jacksoni, exhibit a specialized prey handling behavior known as winnowing, in which ingested food and non-nutritive debris are separated within the oropharyngeal cavity. Prey items are swallowed, and unpalatable material is ejected from the mouth. Winnowing is believed to play an important role in the partitioning of food resources among sympatric embiotocids. We present a mechanistic model for this separative prey processing based on high-speed video analysis, cineradiography, electromyography, and buccal and opercular cavity pressure transducer recording.Winnowing by embiotocids is characterized by premaxillary protrusions repeated cyclically with reduced oral gape. Protrusion is accompanied by depression of the hyoid apparatus and adduction of the opercula. Alternating expansion and contraction of the buccal and opercular cavities generate regular pressure waveforms that indicate bidirectional water flow during processing. Separation of food from debris by Embiotoca jacksoni occurs in three phases. The prey-debris bolus is transported anteriorly and posteriorly within the oropharyngeal cavity and is then sheared by the pharyngeal jaws. Mechanical processing is complemented by the rinsing action of water currents during hydraulic prey transport.The feeding apparatus of Embiotoca jacksoni is functionally versatile, although not obviously specialized relative to that of nonwinnowing surfperches. Protrusion of the premaxillae and depression of the hyoid apparatus are critical to both prey capture and subsequent prey processing. The pharyngeal jaws exhibit kinematic patterns during separation of food from debris distinct from those observed during mastication of uncontaminated prey. This behavioral flexibility facilitates resource partitioning and the coexistence of E. jacksoni in sympatric embiotocid assemblages.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 218 (1993), S. 237-247 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The term rostrate was introduced by Mortensen ('07) to describe a type of pedicellaria he found in spatangoids. These pedicellariae resemble tridentate ones but have arching valves. Unlike the main categories of echinoid pedicellariae, no clear diagnosis of the rostrate form exists. This work examines the detailed morphology of the valves of rostrate pedicellariae observed by light and scanning electron microscopy and compares the shapes and dimensions of their component parts with tridentate pedicellariae. The data reveal considerable differences between the two, which warrant the recognition of rostrate pedicellariae as a distinct form. A diagnosis is given. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: carcinogenesis ; chemoprevention ; intermediate end point ; biomarkers ; differentiation ; growth factors ; lung cancer ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The need for validate intermediate end point markers to facilitate lung cancer chemointervention research is competing. Three major classes of lung markers are relevant for this application. Since lung cancer includes four distinct hitologies, markers that map degrees of histologic differentiation are important. Many of the markers for squamous differentiation overlap with the candidates for application in the study of head and neck cancer. Production of tissue-specific cell product especially for surfactant or CEA is of interest, because the gene structure is known and many differentiation-related polymorphisms exist. This strategy would be useful for adenomatous type of tissue. A second type of marker is the broad group of differentiation markers. The carbohydrates or blood group-like antigens comprise a representative example. Carbohydrate structures are expressed in a specific sequence during fetal processes, and this sequence appears to reverse with the development of a cancer. Retrodifferentiation of specific differentiation markers is the basis of a major effort to effect earlier lung cancer detection using sputum immunocytochemistry. The final class includes markers which affects either positive or negative aspects of growths. Candidates in this area include growth factors or their receptors or genes that regulate growth. If the intermediate end point marker reflects tumor biology and is in that casual path of tumor progression, serial observation of that parameter should indicate the success of the intervention. In all three of these examples the clinical material to be analyzed could be sputum specimens bonrchial biopsies or resected lung tissue. Systematic analysis of these markers in context of intervention trials required to validate their utility. Long term clinical follow up will demonstrate the degree of concordance between biomarkers and more traditional clinical trial end points and will establish if such tools can play a role in catalyzing the rate of prevention research. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: growth control ; transcription ; repression ; dihydrofolate reductase ; retinoblastoma ; Balb/c 3T3 cells ; TATAA-less promoter ; gene expression ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Dihydrofolate reductase activity is required for many biosynthetic pathways including nucleotide synthesis. Its expression is therefore central to cellular growth, and it has become a key target for cancer chemotherapy. Transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase gene is regulated with growth, being expressed maximally in late G1/early S phase following serum stimulation of quiescent cells. This regulation is directed by a promoter which contains binding sites for only the transcription factors Sp1 and E2F. In this study, the role of these promoter elements in growth/cell cycle regulation of dihydrofolate transcription was addressed directly by transient transfection of Balb/c 3T3 cells with mutant promoter-reporter gene constructs. The E2F sites were found to repress transcription in G0 and early G1 but did not contribute to the level of transcription in late G1/S phase. In contrast, Sp1 sites were able to mediate induction of transcription from the dihydrofolate reductase promoter, as well as a heterologous promoter, following serum stimulation of quiescent cells. These findings add dihydrofolate reductase to a growing list of genes at which E2F sites are primarily repressive elements and delineate a role for Sp1 sites in the growth/cell cycle regulation of transcription. J. Cell. Biochem. 67: 24-31, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 53 (1993), S. 59-64 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Atypical hyperplasia ; breast cancer ; cancer risk ; hyperplasia ; family history ; premalignancy ; proliferative disease ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Breast cancer risk assessment in women following a benign breast biopsy is a promising area with regard to intermediate endpoint determination, and has been particularly fostered by the consensus agreement concerning the risk attributed to specific diagnoses [1]. Several recent studies have largely verified this approach [2-4], and a recent report demonstrates general agreement among most expert pathologists regarding diagnostic criteria for these lesions [5]. However, in a limited number of cases, determining exact levels of risk for individual patients has been problematic as a result of a failure by pathologists to achieve consensus on diagnostic criteria for these same lesions. This situation has arisen primarily because it is much more tenable to disagree over subjective diagnostic criteria, than it is to argue with robustly supported epidemiological data. Without agreement on reproducible diagnostic criteria, widely promulgated consensus risk estimates for these specific histologic entities are no longer applicable. In addition, those individuals who choose different diagnostic criteria for proliferative breast lesions fail to realize that the terminology, epidemiological risk estimates, and diagnostic criteria used by Dupont and Page are inexorably linked. Since the publication of the consensus statement [1], those using the terms “atypical ductal hyperplasia” and “atypical lobular hyperplasia” have by default accepted the diagnostic criteria of Dupont and Page. Therefore, surgical pathologists who desire to make use of the consensus risk estimates must familiarize themselves with diagnostic criteria for the various histologic entities that comprise proliferative disease of the breast as defined by Dupont and Page [6]. This presentation will concentrate on the importance of a combined histologic and cytologic approach to diagnose proliferative breast lesions, and will specifically focus on usual hyperplasia, atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia, and both ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: bone acidic glycoprotein-75 ; self-association ; aggregation-dependent neoepitope ; macromolecular complexes in vivo and in vitro ; sequestration of phosphate ions ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Monoclonal antibody HTP IV-#1 specifically recognizes a complexation-dependent neoepitope on bone acidic glycoprotein-75 (BAG-75) and a Mr = 50 kDa fragment. Complexes of BAG-75 exist in situ, as shown by immunofluorescent staining of the primary spongiosa of rat tibial metaphysis and osteosarcoma cell micromass cultures with monoclonal antibody HTP IV-#1. Incorporation of BAG-75 into complexes by newborn growth plate and calvarial tissues was confirmed with a second, anti-BAG-75 peptide antibody (#503). Newly synthesized BAG-75 immunoprecipitated from mineralizing explant cultures of bone was present entirely in large macromolecular complexes, while immunoprecipitates from monolayer cultures of osteoblastic cells were previously shown to contain only monomeric Mr = 75 kDa BAG-75 and a 50 kDa fragment. Purified BAG-75 self-associated in vitro to form large spherical aggregate structures composed of a meshwork of 10 nm diameter fibrils. These structures have the capacity to sequester large amounts of phosphate ions as evidenced by X-ray microanalysis and by the fact that purified BAG-75 preparations, even after extensive dialysis against water, retained phosphate ions in concentrations more than 1,000-fold higher than can be accounted for by exchange calculations or by electrostatic binding. The ultrastructural distribution of immunogold-labeled BAG-75 in the primary spongiosa underlying the rat growth plate is distinct from that for other acidic phosphoproteins, osteopontin and bone sialoprotein. We conclude that BAG-75 self-associates in vitro and in vivo into microfibrillar complexes which are specifically recognized by monoclonal antibody HTP IV-#1. This propensity to self-associate into macromolecular complexes is not shared with acidic phosphoproteins osteopontin and bone sialoprotein. We hypothesize that an extracellular electronegative network of macromolecular BAG-75 complexes could serve an organizational role in forming bone or as a barrier restricting local diffusion of phosphate ions. J. Cell. Biochem. 64:547-564. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: monocytes ; granulocytes ; cell maturation ; promoter ; transcription ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The human myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) is expressed specifically in maturing cells of the myelomonocytic lineage and in monocytes and granulocytes. Epitope enhancement was used to confirm the strict lineage- and stage-specific expression of MNDA in bone marrow as well as in other paraffin-embedded fixed tissues. A 1-kb region of the gene that includes 5′ flanking sequence was reported earlier to contain functional promoter activity and was specifically demethylated in expressing cells in contrast to null cells. Further analysis has revealed that this 1-kb fragment promotes higher reporter gene activity in MNDA-expressing cells than non-expressing cells, indicating cell-specific differences in transactivation. This sequence contains consensus elements consistent with myeloid-specific gene expression, including a PU.1 consensus site near the major transcription start site and a cluster of c-Myb sites located several hundred bases upstream of this region. However, analysis of deletion mutants localized nearly all of the promoter activity to a short region (-73 to -16) that did not include the cluster of c-Myb sites. A 4-bp mutation of the core Sp1 consensus element (GC box) (-20) reduced overall promoter activity of the 1-kb fragment. Mutation of the PU.1 site did not significantly affect promoter activity. Only a small region (-35 to + 22) including the Sp1 element and transcription start site, but not the PU.1 site was footprinted. The 4-bp mutation of the core Sp1 consensus element abolished footprinting at the site and an antibody super-shift reaction showed that Sp1 is one of the factors binding the consensus site. The Sp1 site also co-localizes with a DNase I hypersensitive site. The results indicate that DNA methylation, chromatin structure, and transactivation at an Sp1 site contribute to the highly restricted expression of this myelomonocytic lineage specific gene. J. Cell. Biochem. 65:231-244. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The hypophysis of the brook trout is irrigated by blood vessels which originate from the internal carotid arteries. These are: (1) branches of the ventral hypothalamic arteries that give rise to an extensive capillary plexus in the neurohypophysis from which vessels extend into all regions of the adenohypophysis; (2) branches of the caudal hypothalamic artery that irrigate the saccus vasculosus and continue anteriorly to supply the ventral areas of the meta-adenohypophysis; (3) a caudal hypophyseal artery which vascularizes a portion of the meta-adenohypophysis however, this vessel is not always present; (4) a pair of small arteries which supply the peripheral regions of the gland directly from the carotids.Most of the neurosecretory fibers of the preoptic-hypophyseal tract terminate close to capillaries in the neurohypophysis. A few axons extend into meso-adenohypophyseal tissue. It is suggested that the secretory activities of the pro-, meso- and metaadenohypophyses are governed by hypothalamic factors that are chiefly transmitted to the gland cells via the vascular system (indirect control). However, the activity of the meso-adenohypophysis may also be regulated by factors which are transmitted directly to the cells from the endings of neurosecretory fibers which have traversed the neurohypophysis (direct control). The distribution and abundance of neurosecretion in the ventral hypophysis suggest the possibility of storage of hypothalamic products within this region.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0095-9898
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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