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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (13)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Superconductivity ; Perovskites ; Oxides ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: Twins are ubiquitous in the perovskite superconductors. They form during cooling from high temperatures through the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transformation. Their behavior has been studied by transmission electron microscopy using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled specimen holder. It is observed that extra twins sometimes form in coarse-twinned regions to give a “refined” twin structure; this is thought to be induced by thermal stresses from the electron beam. Prolonged electron irradiation (with little beam heating) results in transformation to tetragonal with a loss of the twin structure; this is probably due to disordering of the oxygen sublattice by knock-on displacement. The same transformations can be induced by deliberate electron beam heating. In both cases the twinned orthorhombic structure can be restored by re-ordering of the oxygen ions, in the first case by removing the beam and in the second case by allowing the specimen to cool.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1058-8388
    Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cells ; Progenitor cells ; Pluripotent cells ; Muscle ; Fat ; Cartilage ; Bone ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Previous studies have noted the presence of mesenchymal stem cells located within the connective tissue matrices of avian skeletal muscle, dermis, and heart. In these studies, clonal analysis coupled with dexamethasone treatment revealed the presence of multiple populations of stem cells composed of both lineage-committed progenitor mesenchymal stem cells and lineage-uncommitted pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells. The present study was undertaken to assess the distribution of these stem cells in the connective tissues throughout various regions of the body. Day 11 chick embryos were divided into 26 separate regions. Heart, limb skeletal muscle, and limb dermis were included as control tissues. Cells were harvested enzymatically and grown using conditions optimal for the isolation, cryopreservation, and propagation of avian mesenchymal stem cells. Cell aliquots were plated, incubated with various concentrations of dexamethasone, and examined for differentiated phenotypes. Four recurring phenotypes appeared in dexamethasone-treated stem cells: skeletal muscle myotubes, fat cells, cartilage nodules, and bone nodules. These results suggest that progenitor mesenchymal stem cells and putative pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells with the potential to form at least four tissues of mesodermal origin have a widespread distribution throughout the body, being located within the connective tissue compartments of many organs and organ systems. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: cytochalasins ; energy-depletion ; hemostasis ; kinetics ; receptors ; stimulus-response coupling ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The attachment of platelets to collagen-coated microtiter plates at 20°C was inhibited strongly by depletion of metabolic energy or by addition of cytochalasins and was slightly inhibited by the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. In keeping with their respective potencies as inhibitors of actin polymerization, cytochalasins D and H were the most potent inhibitors of adhesion, while cytochalasin B was the least potent. Energy depletion, cytochalasin D or, to a much lesser extent, BAPTA also inhibited platelet adhesion to collagen in a suspension assay system at 37°C. Collagen-induced platelet cytosolic Ca2+ mobilization was inhibited up to 70% by cytochalasin D and abolished by energy depletion or BAPTA. Elevation of intracellular platelet calcium by treatment with ionomycin had little effect on platelet adhesion to collagen. We propose that rapid platelet spreading along collagen fibers is both energy- and actin-dependent and necessary to produce maximal adhesion needed to elicit Ca2+ mobilization required for subsequent responses.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Antioxidants ; bioavailability ; carotenoid oxidation ; human studies ; serum carotenoids ; zeaxanthin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consuming large quantities of fruits and vegetables reduces the risk for several types of human cancers. Carotenoids are abundant in fruits and vegetables and have been extensively studied as cancer preventive agents. A proposed mechanism of action for the protective effect of carotenoids against cancer is based on their antioxidant capability. Recently, we have isolated and characterized 14 new carotenoids, including seven metabolites from the extracts of human serum/plasma. This brings the total number of identified blood carotenoids to 21. Lutein and lycopene, abundant in most fruits and vegetables as well as human serum, have been shown to posses strong antioxidant capability. Among the metabolites of lutein, four result from oxidation and two from non-enzymatic dehydration. The metabolite of lycopene has been identified as 5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrolycopene, which apparently results from oxidation of lycopene to an intermediate, lycopene epoxide. This intermediate may undergo metabolic reduction to form the lycopen metabolite. Although in vivo oxidation of lutein to its metabolites has been demonstrated based on data obtained from two human studies, in vivo oxidation of lycopene to its metabolite has not yet been established. Recent preliminary studies involving healthy subjects ingesting purified lutein and zeaxanthin (a dietary dihydroxycarotenoid isomeric to lutein) are presented. We propose a possible antioxidant mechanism of action for lutein and lycopene that leads to formation of the oxidation products of these promising chemopreventive agents.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1058-8388
    Keywords: Tenascin ; Somitic mesoderm ; XBra ; XMyoD ; XMyf5 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Tenascin is a large glycoprotein which is expressed in a restricted pattern in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of vertebrate embryos. Tenascin interferes with cell-fibronectin interactions in vitro, and may play a role in the control of cell migration and differentiation during development. In Xenopus, tenascin immunoreactivity is first detected at the early tailbud stage in the ECM of the most anterior somite. Thereafter, it is distributed dorsally along neural crest cell migration pathways. In this paper, we report that tenascin mRNA is most abundant in dorsal mesoderm at the neurula stage and in somites at the early tailbud stage, indicating that the initial accumulation of tenascin in the ECM is due to secretion from paraxial mesoderm. To understand how tenascin expression in somitic mesoderm is controlled, we have expressed Xbra and the myogenic factors XMyoD and XMyf5 in blastula animal cap tissue. The tenascin gene is activated by all three transcription factors. Interestingly, expression of tenascin mRNA, and accumulation of the protein in the ECM, can occur without formation of muscle. Our results suggest that tenascin regionalization in early Xenopus embryos depends on tenascin RNA expression by somitic mesoderm, where it is likely to be activated by myogenic factors. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Although tingible body macrophages (TBM) have been recognized in germinal centers for over 100 years, their role in the germinal center response is not clear. In this study, the kinetics of the TBM response was quantitatively assessed and correlated with the kinetics of germinal center development in young mice. The TBM response in old mice (which have an age-related depression of germinal center development; Szakal et al., 1990) was analyzed for comparison. Young and old immune mice were challenged with human serum albumin and 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days later the popliteal and axillary lymph nodes were evaluated. Germinal centers were localized histochemically in alternate serial sections using horseradish peroxidase conjugated peanut agglutinin. TBM numbers were determined per germinal center on adjacent sections by the presence of tingible bodies or histochemically by using the monoclonal antibody Mac-2. Analysis of lymph nodes from young mice showed that TBM numbers decreased with the dissociation of preexisting germinal centers. TBM reappeared 5 days after challenge and the TBM kinetics paralleled the increase in size of de novo germinal centers. In fact, a constant ratio of one TBM to every 350-450 B cells was maintained from day 5 to day 10. In old lymph nodes, TBM were generally absent throughout germinal center development. The lack of TBM prior to germinal center development and their absence in aged mice are inconsistent with the concept that TBM are required for the induction of the germinal center reaction. However, the data are consistent with a role for TBM in regulating the magnitude of the germinal center reaction.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: spermatozoa ; intracellular Na+ and K+ ; monovalent ionophores ; acrosome reaction ; guinea pig ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Guinea pig spermatozoa were collected from the caudae epididymides in various isotonic solutions and the intracellular sodium and potassium content was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The sperm intracellular Na and K content was found to be influenced by large variations in the extracellular concentrations of these ions. Treatment of spermatozoa suspended in a saline-based solution with the monovalent ionophores monensin or nigericin caused an approximate 2-fold increase in the intracellular Na content and a 3-6 fold decrease in the intracellular K content. Incubation of the spermatozoa in a K+-free minimal culture medium (MCM-PL) at a pH of 7.6 or 8.3 for 2 hr caused an approximate 2-fold increase in the sperm intracellular Na content and a 5-fold decrease in the intracellular K content. The motile spermatozoa incubated for 2 hr at pH 7.6 showed less than 5% acrosome reactions, compared with 30-40% acrosome reactions after incubation at pH 8.3, in response to the addition of 5 mM Ca2+. Changes in the sperm intracellular elemental composition during culture in vitro, which may lead to an acrosome reaction, are discussed.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 2 (1985), S. 277-280 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0095-9898
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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