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  • 1
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Previous studies by Stephens and McNulty and Strecker and Stephens have demonstrated that foil barriers placed between the mesonephros and lateral plate at stages 12 to 15 inhibited limb development, but foil barriers placed between the neural tube and somites at stages 11 to 12 resulted in limbs with normal skeletal patterns. It was concluded that some influence present in the paraxial region of the embryo at stages 11 to 15 is necessary for normal limb development. The present study was undertaken to localize that influence more precisely. Foil barriers were placed in the lateral edge of the somites or segmental plate of stage 10 to 15 chick embryos. Barriers placed into stage 13 to 15 embryos resulted in chicks with normal limbs, but barriers placed into stage 10 to 11 embryos resulted in chicks with defective limbs. Barriers inserted just lateral to Hensen's node at stages 6 to 8 resulted in embryos with defective or absent wings. We also grafted stage 4 to 9 presumptive limb territories with and without Hensen's node. Explants without Hensen's node formed limb-like structures in 1% of the cases. Explants with Hensen's node formed limb-like structures in 27% of the cases. When barriers were implanted and a node was placed on the lateral side of the barrier, limbs formed in 40% of the cases. These data suggest a medial to lateral progression of some as yet unknown morphogenetic influence necessary for normal limb development and we hypothesized that the influence may initially emanate from Hensen's node.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The present study was undertaken to determine whether a visible Wolffian ridge, distinct from the lateral fold, can be identified in chick embryos. Ectoderm thickness was measured in stage 11-17 chick embryos. There was a general trend, from thin ectoderm in the midline, to an ectodermal thickening over the somites, intermediate mesoderm, and lateral plate. Other embryos were cut from the yolk, pinned out, and photographed. The lateral fold was then eliminated, and the embryo was rephotographed. The photographs reveal a definite opaic zone, distinct from the lateral fold, in stage 11-18 chick embryos. Furthermore, there is a direct correlation between the opacity of this cellular band and the limb-forming potential of grafted wing, flank, and leg regions (see Stephens et al., '89). At stages 11-14, the wing, flank, and leg exhibit a uniform opacity, and a uniform capacity for limb formation when grafted to a host celom. From stage 15 to stage 18, the opacity in the flank diminishes, and its limb-forming capability disappears. This study demonstrates the presence of an opaic zone, which we have called the limb-forming zone (LFZ) along the lateral side of early chick embryos, which is independent of the lateral fold, is not as extensive as the lateral plate, and is not simply associated with ectodermal thickening, but which is directly correlated with limb-forming potential in the lateral plate. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1058-8388
    Keywords: Limbs ; Development ; Field ; Chick ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Harrison (1918: J. Exp. Zool. 25: 413-461) described a developmental field as an “equipotential self-differentiating system.” The present study was undertaken to address the question: To what extent can the pre-limb territory of a chick embryo be considered a developmental field? To what extent is the chick pre-limb territory an equipotential self-differentiating system? Two sets of experiments were undertaken to address these questions: (1) Whole and half limb territories were explanted to the celoma of host embryos, and (2) portions of the wing territories were extirpated. The wing exhibited the quality of self-differentiation after stage 12, in that the isolated wing territory, grafted to a host celom, could form limbs beginning at stage 12 (however, complete wings formed only from wing territories of stage 16 and older). On the other hand, the chick wing territory did not appear to exhibit equipotentiality. No posterior half limb graft formed normal limbs, and only in two exceptional cases did anterior half limb grafts form limbs. If part or all of the wing territory was removed from chick embryos, normal limbs formed in less than 15% of the cases after stage 15, in about 30% of the cases at stages 13 and 14, but in over half the cases at stages 10-12. Wound healing and reintiation of limb potential may be responsible for the higher incidence of limb formation at the younger ages. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We can distinguish two classes of membrane transport changes in cultured cells: (a) growth-rate contingent changes are those which occur in coordination with the onset of density-dependent inhibition of growth; (b) transformation-specific changes are those which occur when cells become transformed, and which can be detected even when normal and transformed cells are growing at the same rate. Growth-rate contingent changes include the density-dependent changes in phosphate, nucleoside, glucose, amino acid, and potassium transport. Only one transformation-specific transport change has been found in Rous-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts: an increased rate of hexose transport. The variations in potassium transport are associated with variations in the number of ouabain binding sites in the membrane. The molecular basis for changes in the rate of hexose transport is unknown, although gross changes in membrane bilayer composition and “fluidity” seem not to be involved. In analyzing the regulation of hexose transport activity, we find that decreased cAMP may play a role in the transformation-specific increase in hexose transport, but that fibrinolytic activity is not necessary.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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