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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (54)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: video microscopy ; axonal transport ; computer motion analysis ; giant axon ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Moving intra-axonal organelles demonstrate frequent variations in speed when viewed over several seconds. To evaluate these and other motion variations, a long-term analysis of organelle motion in isolated axoplasm of Myxicola infundibulum was carried out using differential interference contrast optics and analog and digital image enhancement techniques. Motion characteristics of individual organelles were analyzed for periods of up to 58 minutes. Three principle observations on organelle motion were made: (1) Classes of organelles of the same size demonstrated a 5- to 25-fold variation of speed, with the slowest speeds occurring most frequently; (2) organelle speeds over individual translocations (motion without stopping) are inversely proportional to their size, but the speeds calculated for the long-term analysis of organelle motion (total distance travelled/total observation time, including pauses) did not reflect this observation; and (3) organelles displayed variable trip lengths, durations, mean speeds, and pause durations, and the relationships between these variations showed no repetitive patterns. In contrast to reported observations of uniform velocities of organelles moving on isolated microtubule preparations, these observations suggest that a variety of factors must play a role in organelle translocation in Myxicola axoplasm.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1059-910X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: A miniature vise built into a 5 mm diameter copper capsule is described that holds small pieces of prefrozen, hydrated specimens at low temperatures within the lens of the Hitachi S900 high-resolution scanning electron microscope.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 126 (1968), S. 435-445 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Thin semi-serial ground sections of coronal dentin were examined radiographically. The bulk of the coronal dentin was characterized by the majority of the tubules having a distinct peritubular zone. With the exception of the tubules running from the tip of the cusp to the pulp cornu, the bulk of peritubular matrix forming the walls of the tubules was disposed eccentrically. The matrix was thicker on the cervical sides of the tubule than it was on the incisal sides. In a relatively narrow layer of the coronal dentin between the bulk of the dentin and the predentindentin border area the thickness of the peritubular matrix varied considerably. It was extremely narrow or absent in some tubules and reached its greatest thickness in others. The tubules in the predentin border area showed little or no evidence of peritubular matrix. The area of dentin beneath the central developmental groove differed somewhat from the bulk of the dentin. Many of the tubules at all levels of this area showed little radiographic evidence of peritubular matrix. Obliterated tubules were seen in some of the sections taken immediately above the predentin-dentin border area in the region of the pulp cornu and were always seen at the junction of the mantle dentin and the circumpulpal dentin beneath the central developmental groove.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 43 (1990), S. 293-296 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: phosphatase phosphotyrosine ; orthovanadate ; viral oncogenes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We have isolated a revertant cell line (G5) from an adenovirus transformed rat cell line (F4) which failed to express the integrated viral oncogenes. To determine whether the reversion mutation was acting in cis or trans the G5 cells were co-transfected with an E1 gene bearing expression plasmid and a neomycin photransferase bearing plasmid. 0418-resistant colonies were picked and shown to express the E1 proteins and to be tumorigenic. This re-transformation could be partially mimicked by treatment with vanadate, an inhibitor of phosphotyrosine phosphatases. These results show that the continued presence of the E1 proteins was required to maintain the transformed phenotype, and that the reversion mutation was a cis-acting event affecting directly the integrated E1 genes.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Filaments about 6-7 nm in diameter were seen associated with germ cell intercellular bridges in detergent-permeabilized cells treated with tannic acid. Approximately 40-50 filaments were present subjacent to the bridge density. Filaments encircled the bridge channel in a manner similar to contractile ring actin filaments of dividing cells. NBD-phallacidin and myosin S-1 subfragments were employed to demonstrate that the filaments observed at intercellular bridges are actin. Intratesticular injection of a single dose of cytochalasin D, a specific inhibitor of actin filaments, caused certain intercellular bridges of spermatids to open within 3 hr after injection, leading to the production of symplasts. During bridge opening, remnants of bridge densities were gradually incorporated into the lateral aspect of the plasma membrane of the symplast. Thus actin, present in bridge structures, appeared to participate in maintaining certain intercellular bridges. A model of intercullar bridge structure is presented.
    Additional Material: 27 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Human third molars were partially demineralized in an acid-alcohol solution and embedded in Epon 812. Six-micron sections were cut from regions of the cervical enamel exhibiting prominent Retzius lines. The plastic was removed from the specimens by microincineration and were examined with the scanning electron microscope. The most prominent structural feature seen along the Retzius lines was the cervical translocation of some of the prisms. The scanning electron microscopic images also suggested that prisms were translocating in the transverse plane of the tooth. A series of pores, which appeared to be empty, were observed in association with the translocations occurring along the Retzius lines.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A scanning electron microscope cast technique was used to examine the interface between primary and secondary dentine in young and old human teeth. In addition, more traditional methods were used to examine this interface with light microscopy, identical regions being viewed before and after demineralization. No continuity was seen between the tubules in primary dentine and those in irregular secondary dentine in the scanning electron microscope preparations. These preparations did show the tubules to be continuous between primary dentine and regular secondary dentine in young and old teeth. Both the scanning electron microscopic and light microscopic observations suggested that regular secondary dentine becomes highly sclerosed in old teeth.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 8
  • 9
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The ectodermal eyes, 45-55 μm in diameter, of the cnidarian hydrozoan Cladonema radiatum Dujardin possess a lens approximately 15 μm in diameter enveloped by an eyecup (retina). An overlying layer of intensely vacuolated distal process of the adjoining epithelial cells forms a transparent cornea. The eyecup is composed of three cell types: basal cells, melanin-containing pigment cells, and photoreceptor cells. The last two cell types occur in the ratio of approximately 2:1. Histogenesis of the eye both during ontogeny and regeneration is described from light and electron microscopic investigations. During ontogeny the cell types forming the retina are derived from a compact group of morphologically undifferentiated cells, but during regeneration a primordium is formed by regeneration cells. In both cases the lens is built from distal nonnucleated cytoplasmic portions pinched off from the pigment cells. The cornea is formed by distal lamellar processes of the ocellus adjoining the epithelial cells. Through EM-histochemical methods (silver impregnation and DOPA-oxidase reaction) the pigment of the chromatophores of the retina was identified as melanin.
    Additional Material: 25 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 141 (1973), S. 479-489 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: To determine the prism sheath configurations in human cuspal enamel 80 teeth were initially ground to produce flat surfaces through the following planes: a horizontal series at successively greater distances from the dentinoenamel junction and longitudinally through the center of the cusps. Individual teeth were suspended in an acid-alcohol solution (1 cm3 conc. HCl in 100 cm3 95% ethanol) at 37°C for seven to ten days. The treatment “softened” the enamel to a depth of approximately 1 mm. The teeth were embedded in Epon and sectioned at 0.5 to 10 μm with a diamond knife. Thick and thin ground sections for phase contrast microscopy and acid-etched ground sections for Nomarski differential interference microscopy were prepared through the same regions. In thicker longitudinal sections, the prisms in gnarled enamel formed a zig-zag pattern which was unlike the twisting pattern generally observed in ground sections. The thinnest transverse sections showed the sheath outlines to be dramatically different from those seen elsewhere in the enamel. Some prism sheaths were circular, others were in the form of spirals. What could be described as sheaths within sheaths were also seen. In the thinnest longitudinal sections the prisms were seen to be elongated and discontinuous. Sheath outlines in enamel adjacent to the central core of gnarled enamel were similar to those described elsewhere in the body of the enamel. Keyhole, modified keyhole patterns and arcade forms were the dominant sheath patterns. Other atypical sheath configurations were seen scattered throughout this region.
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