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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pflügers Archiv 395 (1982), S. 75-77 
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Excitation-contraction coupling ; Cell calcium ; Vascular smooth muscle ; Reversibly hyperpermeable cells ; Calcium indicators ; Aequorin ; Phenylephrine ; Angiotensin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The bioluminescent calcium indicator aequor in was successfully loaded into vascular smooth muscle cells ofAmphiuma tridactylum by either microinjection or a new method which makes the cells reversibly hyperpermeable. Both gave similar results; however, the latter method produced larger signals. Vasoconstrictors produced a sustained contraction and a light (calcium) response consisting of two component: a large transient followed by a smaller, sustained response. Electrical stimulation produced a light transient that was much briefer than the contraction. These results suggest that tension can be maintained in smooth muscle in the presence of lower calcium levels than those present during force development.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Excitation-contraction coupling ; Cell calcium ; Mammalian cardiac muscles ; Reversibly hyperpermeable cells ; Calcium indicators ; Aequorin ; Isoproterenol ; Caffeine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The bioluminescent calcium indicator aequorin was successfully loaded into mammalian working myocardium of ferrets by a chemical procedure which makes the cells reversibly hyperpermeable through exposure to Ethylenebis-(oxyethylenenitrilo) tetraacetic acid (EGTA). After undergoing the loading procedure, developed tension at Lmax was 103±26% of the control, which indicates that the muscles regained normal function. The configurations of the aequorin signals (i.e., calcium transients) and their responses to drugs were the same as reported after microinjection of aequorin. The peak of the Ca++ transient determined by the method of fractional luminescence at 3s intervals of stimulation, 2.5mM [Ca++]o, 22.5°C was 1.1μM; this value is similar to that reported for microinjection. These results indicate that the chemical loading procedure is a useful alternative to microinjection for loading aequorin into mammalian working myocardium.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Excitation-contraction coupling ; Cell calcium ; Cardiac muscle ; Thyroid hormone ; Aequorin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of thyroid hormone on tension development and the intracellular calcium transient in mammalian ventricular muscle. A hyperthyroid (H) state was induced in ferrets by subcutaneous injection ofl-thyroxine, 0.3 mg/kg daily, for 2–3 weeks. One-half of the age matched control group (C) were injected with vehicle. Aequorin was loaded into the cells of ferret papillary muscles by a chemical procedure. The muscles were stimulated at 0.33 Hz and isometric tension and the calcium transient were simultaneously recorded at 30°C. Peak isometric tension in mN/mm2 (±SD) was 15.4±7.2 and 16.2±7.9 for C (n=8) and H (n=9) respectively. The time to peak tension and time to 80% relaxation from peak of tension were reduced by 22% and 28% respectively in H compared to C. After stimulation, the calcium transient reached a maximum in 56±6 ms in C and in 47±5 ms in H. The time to 80% decay of the peak calcium transient was 95±8 ms and 68±5 ms for C and H respectively. The ratio of the aequorin luminescence at the peak of the calcium transient over the calculated maximum luminescence,L max, were compared and they were not different. At 22°C Log (L/L max) was −3.3±0.1 in C (n=4) and −3.4±0.3 in H (n=3). These results indicate that the thyroid state influences the time course of the calcium transient and are consistent with the abbreviation in the duration of contraction that is observed in the hyperthyroid state.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A technique for estimating Mc, the molecular weight between crosslinks, of amine-cured epoxy resins is described. The technique is based upon the stoichiometry of the curing reaction and the amount of primary amino and epoxy groups remaining in the polymer at a given time. The Mc values so calculated are shown to be consistent with Mc results obtained from separate measurements of swelling and the polymer-solvent interaction parameter χ1 for the range of polymer concentration in which both measurements could be obtained. A means of estimating the relative reaction rates of the primary and secondary amino groups with the epoxy groups is given. Under proper curing conditions the amine-epoxy reaction goes very nearly to completion. The presence or absence of an exotherm has no noticeable effect on the course of the reaction between bisphenol A-epichlorohydrin (Epon 828) and methylene dianiline.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: entangled polymer solution ; double-step strain rate ; flow birefringence ; tube model ; segmental stretch ; Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Experiments measuring the orientation angle and birefringence in startup and double-step strain rate flows were conducted on a 3.0 wt % 8.42 × 106 molecular weight polystyrene solution in a Couette flow cell. A phase-modulated flow birefringence apparatus was used to noninvasively probe the sample. Upon startup from rest, the orientation angle undershoots its final steady-state value, as seen by earlier investigators. When the shear rate undergoes a step increase from one nonzero value to another, the amplitude of this undershoot is decreased. However, a more significant effect is a shorter time scale overshoot in the orientation angle that is highly counterintuitive in the sense that an increase of shear rate initially produces a rotation of chain segments away from the flow direction. Similarly, a step decrease in shear rate yields an initial transient rotation toward the flow direction. In both cases, the height of the peaks depends upon the magnitude of the shear rate jump, and the width of the peaks is a function of the final shear rate. The longer time transients in the startup and step increase experiments reflect an apparent change in the relaxation time for segment orientation, which we tentatively attribute to a combination of tube dilation and convective constraint release. The shorter time scale over- and undershoots in the orientation angle appear to be qualitatively explained by considering the differences in extension or contraction of segments along the polymer chain. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci B: Polym Phys 36: 265-280, 1998
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Nylon 66 films exhibiting form I melting behavior show the γ mechanical relaxation at -140°C. Samples which have form II melting behavior do not show this relaxation. The γ relaxation disappears when material having form I behavior is converted to material having form II behavior by annealing or by cold drawing. The form I and form II types of melting behavior are also found in poly(ethylene terephthalate); the interconversions and thermal behavior of the forms are analogous to the nylon 66 case. In poly(ethylene terephthalate), the β relaxation at -40 to -60°C is present only when form I melting behavior is found. Conversion to form II melting behavior by annealing or drawing (80°C) again causes the relaxation to disappear. No β relaxation was found in amorphous polymer. The γ dispersion in nylon 66 and the β dispersion in poly(ethylene terephthalate) can therefore be associated with the crystalline structure responsible for form I melting behavior. Form I melting behavior has been associated with foldedchain crystals based on previous work. It is therefore postulated that the γ dispersion in nylon 66 and the β dispersion in poly(ethylene terephthalate) are associated with motions in the chain folds. This assignment is not inconsistent with the change in the γ dispersion of nylon 66 with the number of backbone CH2 units, since these will affect the fold structure.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A technique for the selective degradation of amorphous regions in nylon 6,6 is reported. Samples of unoriented film and single-crystal mats have been subjected to selective degradation by refluxing in hydrazine. Weight loss, viscosity-average molecular weight, density, and small-angle x-ray scattering of these samples were monitored as a function of time of degradation. In addition, selected samples have been investigated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and transmission electron microscopy. Based on the results of these investigations it is concluded that the reported degradation technique is unique in that the debris is not monodisperse in molecular weight distribution. The Weight loss, density, small-angle x-ray scattering, and microscopy data demonstrate that the unordered or noncrystalline regions of the material are removed upon treatement. However, the relatively high molecular weight and broad molecular weight distribution of the debris indicate that regular folds at lamellar surfaces are intact after degradation treatment.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Quantitative Hv small-angle light-scattering (SALS) studies of the melting of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) have been performed. The results are compared with those from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is found that fully grown spherulites melt over a temperature range of about 20°C without change in spherulite size, number, or internal disorder. The decrease in Hv SALS intensity is due to a decrease in spherulitic crystallinity over the melting range. The corrected experimental intensities are lower than, but in reasonable agreement with, the theoretically predicted intensities based on the DSC results. Procedures are presented for the quantitative analysis of Hv SALS intensities from spherulitic systems, including the corrections for the experimental, external disorder, and internal disorder effects.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0360-6376
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The interaction of lithium-doped polyimide films with water has been investigated. Contact angle and water absorption/desorption measurements have been performed to obtain an idea of the hygroscopic nature of these lithium-doped films. Contact angles were found to decrease as the amount of surface lithium increased. Film water content was also found to increase as the weight percent of total lithium content in the film increased. This phenomenon has been used to rationalize the electrical resistivity-temperature profile of certain lithium films which display an increase in electrical resistivity upon drying.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0098-1273
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Treatement with hydrazine was used to investigate the crystalline morophology of commercially drawn nylon 6,6 fibers. Electron microscopic investigation revealed a stacked lamellar structure for the debris of a highly oriented, rapidly drawn fiber. However, the high molecular weight range of the gel permeation chromatogram of this same oriented fiber indicated the presence of high molecular weight material. This is thought to be due to the production of rod-like, partially extended regions during drawing.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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